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United States v. Washington

United States District Court, W.D. Washington

March 22, 1991

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff,
v.
STATE OF WASHINGTON, Defendant

Page 1173

[Copyrighted Material Omitted]

Page 1174

[Copyrighted Material Omitted]

Page 1175

Dr Howard F Horton, Special Master, Pro se, CORVALLIS, OR.

For Quinault Indian Nation, Movant: John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Schuyten/Bivalves, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. McCrory/Pickering Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Roundtree/Quiet Water Clams, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Olson/Olson Oyster Co., Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Von Allmen/Acme Seafood, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Robbins/Hama Hama, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For H. Jones/Carol Farms, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Vimont/Totkum Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Engman/Engman Oyster Farm, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Rawding/Rawding Oyster Company, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Jensen/Jensen's Sea Ranch, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Miller/Millers Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. MIller/RE Miller Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Roy M. Taylor, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Steele/Rock Point Oyster, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Lentz/Chelsea Farms, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Babare/Babare Bros., Inc., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Broders/Broders Seafood, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Yamashita/Western Oyster Company, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Mazzoncini/Joe Leonard Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Johnson/Marrowstone Island Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Martinen/Totten Rock Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L.Bishop/Little Skookum Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Stevens/Stevens & Son Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Hall/Manke Lumber, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

J. Harvey/Skookum Clam and Oyster Farm, Movant, Pro se, Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Hall/Arcadia Shellfish LLC, Movant: Robert M Smith, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For T. Sheldon/Potlach Oyster Company, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Wallin Bennett/Wallin's Oysters, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Bruce Brenner/JJ Brenner Oyster Company, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L. Iraheta/Girl Scouts, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Evan Adams/Sound Fresh Clams & Oysters, Movant, Pro se.

For Evan Adams/Sound Fresh Clams & Oysters, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Draper/Draper Tree, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Gray/Oliver Gray & Sons, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Pete Hinton/Salty Dog Seafood, Inc., Movant, Pro se.

For Pete Hinton/Salty Dog Seafood, Inc., Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Taylor/Taylor Homestead Clams, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Scott Gellatly/McDonald Mollusca, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Rae/R-Bay Seafood, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Clark/G& R Quality Seafood, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Frances F. Allen/Walter E. Allen Estate, Movant, Pro se.

For Frances F. Allen/Walter E. Allen Estate, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For S. Price/Price Clam, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Mathew Buldis/National Fish & Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Gibbons/Seattle Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Schreiber/Schreiber Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Joan S. Russell/Sea Spray Mariculture, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Bleeker/Seafood Northwest, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For N. Jones/Sweetwater Shellfish Farm, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Brandt Orme/Deer Harbor Shellfish, Movant, Pro se.

For Brandt Orme/Deer Harbor Shellfish, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For T. Morris/Calm Cove Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Janet Kron/Kron Enterprises, Movant, Pro se.

For Janet Kron/Kron Enterprises, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For P. Patterson/John Sells Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Fagergren/Calm Cove Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Renae Gunstone-White, Movant, Pro se.

For Renae Gunstone-White, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Fraser/Mats Mats Oyster, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Norris/Russ' Shellfish, Movant: Dennis Dean Reynolds, LEAD ATTORNEY, BAINBRIDGE ISLAND, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L. Amiotte/Clam Fresh, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Karen K. Moran/Navy Yard Oyster Co., Inc., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For S. Wang/Sunrise Marine, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Carl Barringer/Carl's Oysters, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Chuck and Kelli Dahman, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For A. Hanse/Thorndyke Bay Clam, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Gary Webb/Nancy Gannon/Eagle Rock Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Linda M. Ryan/Olympic Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Laurra McGregor/Lyden Shellfish, Movant, Pro se.

For Laurra McGregor/Lyden Shellfish, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Alan C. Moss/Topeeksin, Movant, Pro se.

For Alan C. Moss/Topeeksin, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Mark Sawyer/Buck Bay Shellfish Farm LLC, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Johnson/Oakland Seafoods, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Girls Scouts of Western Washington, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Katharine Cissna, Movant, Pro se.

For United States of America, Plaintiff: Ann C Juliano, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD INDIAN RESOURCES SECTION, WASHINGTON, DC; Christopher Lee Pickrell, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Eileen Marie Cooney, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, NOAA - GENERAL COUNSEL, SEATTLE, WA; Lawrence S Roberts, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD INDIAN RESOURCES SECTION, WASHINGTON, DC; Robert Lee Gulley, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD WILDLIFE & MARINE RESOURCES, WASHINGTON, DC; Samuel D Rauch, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD WILDLIFE & MARINE RESOURCES, WASHINGTON, DC; Vernon Peterson, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF THE REGIONAL SOLICITOR, PORTLAND, OR; William Anthony White, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, WASHINGTON, DC; Anastasia D. Bartlett, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Colleen Kelley, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF THE REGIONAL SOLICITOR, PACIFIC N.W. REGION, PORTLAND, OR; Judith Rabinowitz, U S DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES DIV, SAN FRANCISCO, CA; Kerry Jane Keefe, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Peter C Monson, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCE INDIAN RES. SECTION, DENVER, CO; Philip H Lynch, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (TACOMA), TACOMA, WA; Vanessa Boyd Willard, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (ENRD) (CO), DENVER, CO.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Plaintiff: David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John William Ogan, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Scott Wheat, LEAD ATTORNEY, CROWELL LAW OFFICES, SPOKANE, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Quinault Indian Nation, Plaintiff: Eric J Nielsen, LEAD ATTORNEY, NIELSEN BROMAN & KOCH, SEATTLE, WA; Fawn R Sharp, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Katherine K Krueger, LEAD ATTORNEY, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA; Naomi Leigh Stacy, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Raymond G. Dodge, Jr., TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA.

For Swinomish Tribal Community, Plaintiff: Alix Foster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; Allan E Olson, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA; Emily Rae Hutchinson Haley, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; James Miller Jannetta, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; James B Weber, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA.

Department of State, US, Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Department of State, US, Plaintiff: Charles R Shockey, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (7369), ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, WASHINGTON, DC.

For Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation, Plaintiff: Elizabeth F M Nason, LEAD ATTORNEY, YAKAMA INDIAN NATION, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, TOPPENISH, WA; Tim Roy Weaver, LEAD ATTORNEY, TIMOTHY R. WEAVER, YAKIMA, WA; Thomas A. Zeilman, LAW OFFICE OF THOMAS A. ZEILMAN, YAKIMA, WA.

Duwamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Duwamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

Aboriginal Swinomish, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Hoh Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kevin R Lyon, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Nettie Louise Alvarez, LEAD ATTORNEY, RALSTON & ALVAREZ, SEATTLE, WA; Richard S Ralston, LEAD ATTORNEY, WEINSTEIN & RILEY, SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Craig J Dorsay, PORTLAND, OR; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Lea Ann Easton, LAW OFFICE OF CRAIG J. DORSAY, PORTLAND, OR; Phillip Evan Katzen, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Jamestown Band Clallam, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Lauren P Rasmussen, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; David Scott Mann, GENDLER & MANN, SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Charles Rivoire Hostnik, LEAD ATTORNEY, ANDERSON BURNS & HOSTNIK, TACOMA, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren P Rasmussen, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Michele C. Coyle, HOFHEIMER GARTLIR & GROSS LLP, NEW YORK, NY; Robert C Troyer, PRO HAC VICE, HOGAN LOVELLS U.S. LLP (CO), DENVER, CO; Stephen Hayes Suagee, OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL, PORT ANGELES, WA; Trent S.W. Crable, THE LAW OFFICE OF TRENT S.W. CRABLE, YPSILANTI, MI.

For Lummi Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Andrea Sue McNamara, LEAD ATTORNEY, SIMONARSON, VISSER, ZENDER & THURSTON, BELLINGHAM, WA; Daniel Alan Raas, LEAD ATTORNEY, RAAS JOHNSEN & STUEN, BELLINGHAM, WA; Harry L Johnsen, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, RAAS JOHNSEN & STUEN, BELLINGHAM, WA; Mary Michelle Neil, LEAD ATTORNEY, LUMMI INDIAN NATION, BELLINGHAM, WA.

For Makah Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: John B Arum, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ, CHESTNUT, VARNELL, BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Joshua Osborne-Klein, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT VARNELL BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Richard M Berley, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT, SEATTLE, WA; Brian C Gruber, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT VARNELL BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Marc Slonim, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT, SEATTLE, WA.

For Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Alan Charles. Stay, LEAD ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Gregory M. O'Leary, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Ann Lavi, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Matthew Phineas Bergman, LEAD ATTORNEY, BERGMAN DRAPER & LADENBURG PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Robert Leighton. Otsea, Jr., LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Karen D Allston, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Laura D. Weeks, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (MUCKLESHOOT), MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA.

For Nisqually Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Bill Tobin, LEAD ATTORNEY, VASHON, WA; Christina Carole Cushman, LEAD ATTORNEY, NISQUALLY INDIAN TRIBE, OLYMPIA, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Maryanne Elizabeth Mohan, NISQUALLY INDIAN TRIBE, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Nooksak Indian Tribe of Washington, Intervenor Plaintiff: David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Edward J Wurtz, LEAD ATTORNEY, BELLINGHAM, WA; Grett L Hurley, LEAD ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, DEMING, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Bree Healani Kame'enui-Ramirez, BETTS PATTERSON & MINES, SEATTLE, WA; Connie Sue Manos Martin, SCHWABE WILLIAMSON & WYATT (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Sandra L Ferguson, FERGUSON FIRM PLLC, SEATTLE, WA.

For Nooksak Indian Tribe of Washington, Intervenor Plaintiff: Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Grett L Hurley, LEAD ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, DEMING, WA; Jeffrey Jon Bode, LEAD ATTORNEY, BELLINGHAM, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Connie Sue Manos Martin, SCHWABE WILLIAMSON & WYATT (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Sandra L Ferguson, FERGUSON FIRM PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Port Gamble Band Clallam, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Lauren P Rasmussen, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; David Scott Mann, GENDLER & MANN, SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Puyallup Tribe of Indians, Intervenor Plaintiff: Annette Klapstein, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICE OF THE PUYALLUP INDIAN TRIBE, TACOMA, WA; Debra S O'Gara, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICE OF THE PUYALLUP INDIAN TRIBE, TACOMA, WA; Samuel J Stiltner, LEAD ATTORNEY, PUYALLUP TRIBE OF INDIANS, TACOMA, WA; John Howard Bell, PUYALLUP TRIBE OF INDIANS, TACOMA, WA.

For Quileute Indian Tribe of the Quileute Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: David R West, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Katherine K Krueger, LEAD ATTORNEY, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Steven G Lingenbrink, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRUDELL & BOWEN, KIRKLAND, WA; Jeffrey C Young, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; O. Yale Lewis, III, LAW OFFICES OF O. YALE LEWIS III, SEATTLE, WA; Seth J Berntsen, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Quileute Indian Tribe of the Quileute Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: David S Vogel, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; David R West, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; Jennifer D Bucher, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Richard Llewellyn Davies, LEAD ATTORNEY, DAVIES & JONES, PORT TOWNSEND, WA; Ruth A Kennedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Seth J Berntsen, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Steven G Lingenbrink, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRUDELL & BOWEN, KIRKLAND, WA; Katherine K Krueger, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; O. Yale Lewis, III, LAW OFFICES OF O. YALE LEWIS III, SEATTLE, WA.

For Quinault Indian Nation, also known as Quinault Indian Nation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Eric J Nielsen, LEAD ATTORNEY, NIELSEN BROMAN & KOCH, SEATTLE, WA; Fawn R Sharp, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Naomi Leigh Stacy, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Raymond G. Dodge, Jr., TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA.

For Samish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Craig J Dorsay, LEAD ATTORNEY, PORTLAND, OR; James Miller Jannetta, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA.

For Sauk-Suiattle Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Regina E. Hovet, POCATELLO, ID; Ric W Armstrong, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, DEMING, WA.

For Skokomish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Brian H Collins, LEAD ATTORNEY, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, LEGAL DEPARTMENT, ARLINGTON, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Douglas B L Endreson, LEAD ATTORNEY, SONOSKY CHAMBERS SACHSE ENDRESON & PERRY, WASHINGTON, DC; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Richard A Guest, LEAD ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH TRIBAL ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, SHELTON, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Earle David Lees, III, Skokomish Tribal Attorney, SKOKOMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Joseph Christy, Jr, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40124-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Lauren P Rasmussen, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

Snoqualmie Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Squaxin Island, Tribe of Indians, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Bruce Owen Davies, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kevin R Lyon, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Ronald John Whitener, LEAD ATTORNEY, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE, WA; Sharon Ilene Haensly, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; David W Babcock, SHELTON, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kelly S Croman, MARINE VIEW VENTURES INC, TACOMA, WA; Nathan E. Schreiner, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA.

Steilacoom Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Steilacoom Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

For Stillaguamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David S Vogel, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Brian H Collins, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, LEGAL DEPARTMENT, ARLINGTON, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Scott Owen Mannakee, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, ARLINGTON, WA.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John William Ogan, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Swinomish Tribal Community, Intervenor Plaintiff: Alix Foster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; Allan E Olson, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA; Sharon Ilene Haensly, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Emily Rae Hutchinson Haley, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; James Miller Jannetta, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA; James B Weber, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA.

For Tulalip Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Mason D Morisset, LEAD ATTORNEY, MORISSET SCHLOSSER JOZWIAK & SOMERVILLE, SEATTLE, WA; A Reid Allison, III, OFFICE OF RESERVATION ATTORNEY (TULALIP), TULALIP TRIBES OF WA, TULALIP, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Timothy Brewer, OFFICE OF RESERVATION ATTORNEY (TULALIP), TULALIP TRIBES OF WA, TULALIP, WA.

For Upper Skagit Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Andrew H Salter, LEAD ATTORNEY, TETON LAW GROUP LLC, JACKSON, WY; David Stoller Hawkins, LEAD ATTORNEY, UPPER SKAGIT INDIAN TRIBE, SEDRO WOOLLEY, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Edward Gerald Maloney, Jr., LEAD ATTORNEY, MT VERNON, WA; Harold Chesnin, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SEDRO WOOLLEY, WA; Cory J Albright, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Elizabeth F M Nason, LEAD ATTORNEY, YAKAMA INDIAN NATION, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, TOPPENISH, WA; Jack Warren Fiander, LEAD ATTORNEY, TOWTNUK LAW OFFICES LTD, SACRED GROUND LEGAL SERVICES INC, YAKIMA, WA; Tim Roy Weaver, LEAD ATTORNEY, TIMOTHY R. WEAVER, YAKIMA, WA; Thomas A. Zeilman, LAW OFFICE OF THOMAS A. ZEILMAN, YAKIMA, WA.

For Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Bret S Simmons, LEAD ATTORNEY, ROY SIMMONS & PARSONS, BELLINGHAM, WA; Howard G Arnett, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR; Martin E. Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP, PETERSEN, ET AL, BEND, OR; Tamara E MacLeod, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR.

For Conf Tribes of Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Christopher Beale Leahy, LEAD ATTORNEY, FREDERICKS, PELCYGER, HESTER & WHITE, LLC, LOUISVILLE, CO; John B. Midgley, LEAD ATTORNEY, COLUMBIA LEGAL SERVICES, SEATTLE, WA; M. Brent Leonhard, CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF THE UMATILLA INDIAN RESERVATION, PENDLETON, OR; Tim Simmons, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, PORTLAND, OR.

For Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho, Intervenor Plaintiff: David J Cummings, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, NEZ PERCE TRIBAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, LAPWAI, ID; Douglas R Nash, LEAD ATTORNEY, HOLLAND & HART, BOISE, ID; Julie Sobotta Kane, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, NEZ PERCE TRIBAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, LAPWAI, ID.

For Snohomish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

For WA State of, Defendant: Amy J MacKenzie, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRESTON GATES & ELLIS (AK), ANCHORAGE, AK; Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), EDUCATION, OLYMPIA, WA; Ernest Lee Rushing, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Jon Peter Ferguson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ELLENSBURG, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Rene David Tomisser, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40126-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Bryce E Brown, Jr, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40113), TRANSPORTATION & PUBLIC CONSTRUCTION, OLYMPIA, WA; Douglas D Shaftel, PIERCE COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (CIVIL), CIVIL DIVISION, TACOMA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & A.D. LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, NATURAL RESOURCES, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Philip Michael Ferester, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Steve Edwin Dietrich, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For WA State of, Defendant: Harold Paul Dygert, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, HEALTH DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Jay Douglas Geck, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; John W. Hough, LEAD ATTORNEY, LANE POWELL (OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph S. Montecucco, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, TORTS DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Leland T. Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE, OLYMPIA, WA; Lynn Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TACOMA, WA; Marylin Mockensturn, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael S Grossmann, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Charles Hargreaves, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, TORTS DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & A.D. LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Mary Sue Wilson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Philip Michael Ferester, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Sheila Deirdra Lynch, ATTORNEY GENERAL, FISH & WILDLIFE, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For Glynn Price, Trustee for A & K Trust, Respondent: David J Britton, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICE OF DAVID J BRITTON, TACOMA, WA; Edward Emmett Wolfe, WOLFE LAW OFFICES, BREMERTON, WA.

For A& K Trust, Respondent: J Scott Bougher, LEAD ATTORNEY, BISHOP CUNNINGHAM & ANDREWS, BREMERTON, WA; David B Gates, LAW OFFICE OF DAVID B. GATES, PORT ORCHARD, WA; Edward Emmett Wolfe, WOLFE LAW OFFICES, BREMERTON, WA.

For Skokomish Indian Tribe, Respondent: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Earle David Lees, III, Skokomish Tribal Attorney, SKOKOMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Suquamish Tribe, Respondent: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Howard G Arnett, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John William Ogan, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR.

Clam Acres, Respondent, Pro se.

For Fisheries Department of the State of Washington, Intervenor Defendant: Ernest Lee Rushing, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Mary Sue Wilson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For Taylor United Inc, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Olympia Oyster Co, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Johnson & Gunstone Clams, a Washington Corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For GR Clam & Oyster Farm, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Cedric E Lindsay, an individual a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Minterbrook Oyster Company, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Robert M Smith, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Charles Murray, Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Willa Murray, a marital community a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Skookum Bay Oyster, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Murray Taylor, an individual a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; James R Rasband, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA.

For Roy Taylor, an individual, Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; James R Rasband, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA.

For Wieghardt & Sons Inc, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Peter Heckes, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For United Property Owners of Washington, Intervenor Defendant: James Martin Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, JAMES M JOHNSON, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Oregon State of, Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J. Gazeley, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SALEM, OR; David D Swartling, LEAD ATTORNEY, MILLS MEYERS SWARTLING, SEATTLE, WA; Roger J DeHoog, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, OREGON DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SPECIAL LITIGATION UNIT, PORTLAND, OR; David E Leith, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SALEM, OR; Raymond Stillman Weber, MILLS MEYERS SWARTLING, SEATTLE, WA; Stephanie M Parent, PRO HAC VICE, OREGON DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (PORTLAND), PORTLAND, OR.

For Alaska State of, Intervenor Defendant: J Anne Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (AK), ANCHORAGE, AK; Michael A D Stanley, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK; Myles A Conway, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, STATE OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE, AK; Laura Christianne Bottger, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, STATE OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE, AK.

For Larry Alexander, Intervenor Defendant: Howard M. Goodfriend, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA; Malcolm L. Edwards, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA.

For Puget Sound Shellfish Growers, Intervenor Defendant: Charles Christian Sipos.

For James Messmer/Girls Scouts of Western Washington, Intervenor Defendant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For John Hollowed, on behalf of the N.W. Indian Fisheries Commission, Interested Party: John James Hollowed, Sr., LEAD ATTORNEY, NORTHWEST INDIAN FISHERIES COMMISSION, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Gold Coast Oyster LLC, Interested Party: David Dillard Cullen, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Interested Party: John William Ogan, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR.

For Purse Seine Vessel Owners Association, Amicus: Robert Francis Kehoe, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Washington Trollers Association, Amicus: Paul Lawrence Anderson, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribes, Amicus: Jeffrey S. Schuster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Gary Westman, Amicus: Robert P Zuanich, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Alaska Trollers Assn, Amicus: Bruce Weyhrauch, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK.

For Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska, Amicus: David C Crosby, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK.

For Inner Sound Crab Association, Amicus: Daniel William Wyckoff, LEAD ATTORNEY, LACEY, WA.

For Washington Association of Counties, Amicus: Pamela Beth Loginsky, LEAD ATTORNEY, WASHINGTON ASSOCIATION OF PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Charmond Adkins, Intervenor: Eric Richter, LEAD ATTORNEY, HENKE & RICHTER, SEATTLE, WA; Howard M. Goodfriend, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA.

For Taylor Shellfish Company, Inc., Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Seattle Shellfish LLC, Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Blind Dog Enterprises, Ltd., doing business as Arcadia Point Seafood, Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Coast Oyster Company Inc, a Washington corporation, Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For E H Bendiksen Company Inc, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Bay Center Mariculture, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Long Island Oyster Co Inc, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Northern Oyster Co, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Dave Nesbitt, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Mareene Nesbitt, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Ruby Heckes, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Laurene Oldham, Intervenor Defendant: Eric Richter, LEAD ATTORNEY, HENKE & RICHTER, SEATTLE, WA; John A. Roberts, Jr., LEAD ATTORNEY, HENKE & RICHTER, SEATTLE, WA.

For WA State of, Counter Claimant: Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), EDUCATION, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & A.D. LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For WA State of, Cross Claimant: Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), EDUCATION, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & A.D. LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

OPINION

Page 1176

REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION ON HALIBUT ALLOCATION

INTRODUCTION

Twelve tribes are authorized to fish for halibut by regulations of the International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC). That agency has also set a commercial harvest limit of 102,500 lb. of halibut for 1991 for all twelve of the tribes, but has not prescribed any allocation of that amount among the specific tribes.

Four of those tribes move for a preliminary injunction, which would set a ceiling of 70,100 lb. on the 1991 commercial harvest of halibut by the Makah Tribe. This would leave 32,400 lb. for the " moving tribes" and the other seven tribes. The four moving tribes are the Jamestown Klallam, Lower Elwha, Port Gamble, and Skokomish.

Pending resolution of the motion for a preliminary injunction, the court has closed treaty fishing for halibut. At the time of the closure, the 1991 halibut catches by the respective tribes were:

Weight

Percentage

Makah

56,241 lb.

72.6%

Quileute

19,652

25.4

Lower Elwha

1,253

1.6

Lummi

280

0.4

Jamestown Kl.

12

0.0

7 other tribes

0

0.0

TOTAL CATCH

77,438 lb.

100.0

Halibut are present in far greater numbers in the ocean than in " inside waters." The Makahs and Quileutes, and certain other tribes, are entitled to fish for halibut in the ocean. All four of the moving tribes may fish only in the inside waters.

It is clear that unrestricted halibut fishing in the ocean by the tribes entitled to

Page 1177

fish there will quickly exhaust the entire tribal quota, and prevent the inside tribes from catching any significant number. It has not been established that, in so doing, the ocean tribes would be intercepting any significant number of fish headed for the inside waters. The parties dispute whether halibut migrate in any significant numbers from the ocean to inside waters. It is at least as likely that the ability of the ocean tribes to take the vast majority of the tribal quota arises from the much greater abundance of halibut in their usual and accustomed fishing grounds. If this is the case, the " inside tribes" would be able to take a substantial quantity of halibut only if the court were to cut off fishing by the ocean tribes. The inside tribes could then, perhaps, catch a substantial number of halibut in their relatively barren waters if permitted to continue over a long enough period.

SUMMARY OF CONCLUSION

The court should deny the motion for a preliminary injunction, and vacate its " Order Closing Treaty Halibut Fishery." The twelve tribes entitle to fish for halibut should be permitted to resume until their total catch reaches the limit set by the IPHC.

THRESHOLD ARGUMENTS BY MAKAHS

The Makahs present two threshold arguments in opposition to the motion. The court should find neither of them persuasive.

First, they challenge the jurisdiction of this court, asserting they have not waived their sovereign immunity as to regulation of their halibut harvest. The parties' lengthy briefs discuss this issue only sparsely; and they essentially ignored it in oral argument of the motion. The court should not resolve the motion on this basis.

Secondly, they urge that this dispute should be raised, if at all, in another case pending before this court and dealing with the treaty halibut allocation. That case is Makah v. Mosbacher, No. 85-1606M, pending before the Hon. Walter T. McGovern. Their argument in this respect is not persuasive. That case apparently involves the overall treaty quota for halibut, not the allocation of that quota among the various tribes. The issues are therefore very distinct. Furthermore, no other tribes are parties to that case. Indeed, there are no parties in that case who could frame the issue of the proper allocation among the tribes.

IDENTIFYING THE APPLICABLE STANDARDS

While the motion before the court is labelled a " Motion for Preliminary Injunction," the unique nature of this case, and its special circumstances, require the court to apply standards which are somewhat different than those applied in ruling upon a conventional motion for a preliminary injunction. The court has recognized this fact, and has acted accordingly, on myriad other occasions during the long history of this case.

First, the classic function of a preliminary injunction is to preserve the status quo, pending a final determination of the merits by the court. But this is not a meaningful or practical objective in this case. As a practical matter, the court's ruling on this motion will determine, once and for all, how the 1991 treaty halibut quota is to be allocated among the competing tribes. It is not possible to preserve the 1991 halibut harvest until the day in the hazy future when the court determines the general principles which are to govern allocation among tribes of the treaty share. The court's ruling on the motion will be a

Page 1178

final determination, at least as to the 1991 harvest.

Next, a crucial standard the courts apply in ruling upon a motion for a preliminary injunction is whether the moving party has shown a likelihood of ultimate success on the merits. In the context of this dispute, that standard must be read to require the moving tribes to demonstrate a congruence between the relief they seek for 1991, and the long-term relief the court is likely to award on allocation generally. In other words, to succeed on this motion, plaintiffs must show what general allocation principles the court is eventually likely to decree; and then show that if those general principles were in place and enforced today, they would produce roughly the specific allocation they propose for 1991.

Finally, in ruling upon motions for preliminary injunctions, courts consider the " balance of hardships" between the parties, and any other equitable considerations that arise in the given case. These standards can be meaningfully applied in this case.

LIKELIHOOD OF SUCCESS ON MERITS

What general principles of allocation among competing tribes will the court eventually decree? On the present record, it is impossible to draw any firm conclusions, beyond pure speculation. In their briefing and argument on the pending motion, the parties have advanced many different standards. These include:

The relative quantities of the fish in question taken by the respective tribes at treaty time.
The relative abundance of the fish in each tribe's usual and accustomed fishing area.
The number of members of each tribe who fish for a particular species.
The dollar investment of each tribe in gear designed to catch a particular type of fish.
The number of tribal members economically dependent upon the harvest of a given type of fish.
The catch history of the respective tribes in recent fisheries.
The relative efforts by each tribe in lobbying regulatory agencies, and in pursuing litigation, to increase the total treaty share.

There are no doubt many more such standards. Depending upon which standard or combination of standards is selected, the resulting allocation among tribes will be markedly different.

The court has not as yet placed its imprimatur upon any of the proposed standards. It will be appropriate to do so after a full litigation of sub-proceeding #86-5. It would be neither fair nor appropriate for the court to adjudicate those standards on a rush basis to rule on a motion in this case.. This is especially true because the court has only a limited group of tribes before it. Many others are vitally interested in the determination of the general principles governing allocation of the treaty share.

Without general allocation principles, it is impossible for the court to determine if the proposed limitation of the Makahs to 70% of the tribal share is high, low, or just about right. The moving parties have therefore not shown, and the court cannot determine, whether they are " likely to succeed on the merits," in the sense that their requested allocation for 1991 conforms to the general allocation principles the court is likely to determine.

Page 1179

BALANCE OF HARDSHIPS

The Makahs have demonstrated that they are able, and likely, to catch more than the 70,100 lb. of halibut which the preliminary injunction would allocate to them. They have thus demonstrated they would suffer an economic detriment if the motion were granted.

The four moving tribes, by contrast, have not demonstrated that they would, or even could, catch the 32,400 lb. the injunction would reserve - or any significant portion of that amount. The Makahs point to the very low catch of halibut by the moving tribes in prior years. In fairness, it is probably true that those low catches were in large part attributable to the very large catches by the Makahs and, to some extent, by other tribes. But even disregarding prior years' statistics, the moving tribes have not shown they have the necessary fishermen or gear ready to go; nor have they demonstrated in any other way their capability and intention to take a significant amount of halibut if the injunction is granted.

The moving tribes have therefore failed to show that the balance of hardships tips in their favor.

OTHER EQUITABLE CONSIDERATIONS

Despite all of the foregoing, the moving tribes make a generalized argument that it is " clearly" inequitable to permit one tribe, the Makahs, to take more than 70% of the allocation to be shared among twelve tribes. While this argument might have a surface appeal, the facts of the 1991 halibut fishery demonstrate that the requested relief would do little, if anything, to improve the lot of the moving tribes.

What has surprised everyone this year is the success of the Quileutes, who are not a moving tribe and whose catch would not be limited by the requested injunction. The catch statistics for 1991 to date are set forth above. They show that, during a period when there was no regulation or court order in place allocating the total treaty share among the tribes, the percentage shares actually taken were:

Makahs

72.6%

Quileutes

25.4

4 moving tribes

1.6

Lummi

0.4

5 remaining tribes

0.0

Setting aside 10,000 lb. for ceremonial and subsistence purposes, 25,062 lb. remain of the treaty commercial quota. If the court denies the preliminary injunction, and the balance of the halibut are caught in roughly the same proportions as the halibut caught to date, the four moving tribes would take another 401 lb. of halibut.

By contrast, the requested preliminary injunction would permit the Makahs to resume their catch until they reach a total of 70,100 lb. The remaining 11,183 lb. of commercial catch would be allocated among the other 11 tribes. If those tribes took that remainder in the same proportions as their fishing to date, the moving tribes would take about 6.0%, or 671 lb.

In other words, entry of the preliminary injunction is likely to provide about 270 lb. of additional halibut to the moving tribes.

Viewed from another perspective, the Makahs seem headed toward a harvest of 74,415 lb. in the absence of a preliminary injunction. Granting the motion would reduce the Makah's harvest by 4,315 lb. As counsel observed during argument, the real beneficiaries of that reduction would not be the moving tribes, but the Quileutes.

In summary, this analysis indicates that granting the requested relief would do little for the moving tribes, while imposing a much greater hardship upon the Makahs.

Page 1180

CONCLUSION

For all of the foregoing reasons, the court should deny the motion for preliminary injunction. It might well be that the allocation principles the court will eventually determine will result in halibut shares different from what these tribes will enjoy on a " catch-as-catch-can" basis in 1991. But the moving tribes have not established a legal right to preliminary relief allocating the halibut on any other basis.

As counsel for the Tulalips points out, this sub-proceeding is really just a " sub-set" of sub-proceeding no. 86-5. No. 91-1 focuses only on halibut, and only on the 1991 season; no. 86-5 concerns allocation generally, of all species and all seasons. The court's ruling on this motion will, as a practical matter, be a final determination as to the 1991 halibut season. If the issues of halibut allocation generally can be raised in this case, they can and should be raised in 86-5.

Accordingly, I recommend the court dismiss this sub-proceeding at this time, without prejudice to any right of the parties to raise these allocation issues in sub-proceeding 86-5.

A proposed order accompanies this Report and Recommendation.


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