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United States v. State

United States District Court, W.D. Washington

January 5, 1994

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, et al., Plaintiffs,
v.
STATE OF WASHINGTON, et al., Defendants

Page 1127

Dr Howard F Horton, Dr. Howard F. Horton, Special Master, Pro se, CORVALLIS, OR.

For Quinault Indian Nation, Movant: John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Schuyten/Bivalves, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. McCrory/Pickering Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Roundtree/Quiet Water Clams, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Olson/Olson Oyster Co., Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Von Allmen/Acme Seafood, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Robbins/Hama Hama, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For H. Jones/Carol Farms, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Vimont/Totkum Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Engman/Engman Oyster Farm, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Rawding/Rawding Oyster Company, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Jensen/Jensen's Sea Ranch, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Miller/Millers Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. MIller/RE Miller Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Roy M. Taylor, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Steele/Rock Point Oyster, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Lentz/Chelsea Farms, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Babare/Babare Bros., Inc., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Broders/Broders Seafood, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Yamashita/Western Oyster Company, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Mazzoncini/Joe Leonard Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Johnson/Marrowstone Island Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Martinen/Totten Rock Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L.Bishop/Little Skookum Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Stevens/Stevens & Son Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Hall/Manke Lumber, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

J. Harvey/Skookum Clam and Oyster Farm, Movant, Pro se.

For J. Harvey/Skookum Clam and Oyster Farm, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Hall/Arcadia Shellfish LLC, Movant: Robert M Smith, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For T. Sheldon/Potlach Oyster Company, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Wallin Bennett/Wallin's Oysters, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Bruce Brenner/JJ Brenner Oyster Company, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L. Iraheta/Girl Scouts, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Evan Adams/Sound Fresh Clams & Oysters, Movant, Pro se.

For Evan Adams/Sound Fresh Clams & Oysters, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Draper/Draper Tree, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Gray/Oliver Gray & Sons, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Pete Hinton/Salty Dog Seafood, Inc., Movant, Pro se.

For Pete Hinton/Salty Dog Seafood, Inc., Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Taylor/Taylor Homestead Clams, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Scott Gellatly/McDonald Mollusca, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Rae/R-Bay Seafood, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Clark/G& R Quality Seafood, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Frances F. Allen/Walter E. Allen Estate, Movant, Pro se.

For Frances F. Allen/Walter E. Allen Estate, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For S. Price/Price Clam, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Mathew Buldis/National Fish & Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Gibbons/Seattle Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Schreiber/Schreiber Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Joan S. Russell/Sea Spray Mariculture, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Bleeker/Seafood Northwest, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For N. Jones/Sweetwater Shellfish Farm, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Brandt Orme/Deer Harbor Shellfish, Movant, Pro se.

For Brandt Orme/Deer Harbor Shellfish, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For T. Morris/Calm Cove Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Janet Kron/Kron Enterprises, Movant, Pro se.

For Janet Kron/Kron Enterprises, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For P. Patterson/John Sells Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Fagergren/Calm Cove Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Renae Gunstone-White, Movant, Pro se.

For Renae Gunstone-White, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Fraser/Mats Mats Oyster, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Norris/Russ' Shellfish, Movant: Dennis Dean Reynolds, LEAD ATTORNEY, BAINBRIDGE ISLAND, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L. Amiotte/Clam Fresh, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Karen K. Moran/Navy Yard Oyster Co., Inc., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For S. Wang/Sunrise Marine, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Carl Barringer/Carl's Oysters, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Chuck and Kelli Dahman, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For A. Hanse/Thorndyke Bay Clam, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Gary Webb/Nancy Gannon/Eagle Rock Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Linda M. Ryan/Olympic Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Laurra McGregor/Lyden Shellfish, Movant, Pro se.

For Laurra McGregor/Lyden Shellfish, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Alan C. Moss/Topeeksin, Movant, Pro se.

For Alan C. Moss/Topeeksin, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Mark Sawyer/Buck Bay Shellfish Farm LLC, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Johnson/Oakland Seafoods, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Girls Scouts of Western Washington, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Katharine Cissna, Movant, Pro se.

Clam Fresh/Katharine Cissna, Movant, Pro se.

For United States of America, Plaintiff: Ann C Juliano, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD INDIAN RESOURCES SECTION, WASHINGTON, DC; Christopher Lee Pickrell, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Eileen Marie Cooney, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, NOAA - GENERAL COUNSEL, SEATTLE, WA; Lawrence S Roberts, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD INDIAN RESOURCES SECTION, WASHINGTON, DC; Robert Lee Gulley, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD WILDLIFE & MARINE RESOURCES, WASHINGTON, DC; Samuel D Rauch, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD WILDLIFE & MARINE RESOURCES, WASHINGTON, DC; Vernon Peterson, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF THE REGIONAL SOLICITOR, PORTLAND, OR; William Anthony White, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, WASHINGTON, DC; Anastasia D. Bartlett, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Colleen Kelley, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF THE REGIONAL SOLICITOR, PACIFIC N.W. REGION, PORTLAND, OR; Judith Rabinowitz, U S DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES DIV, SAN FRANCISCO, CA; Kerry Jane Keefe, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Peter C Monson, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCE INDIAN RES. SECTION, DENVER, CO; Philip H Lynch, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (TACOMA), TACOMA, WA; Vanessa Boyd Willard, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (ENRD) (CO), DENVER, CO.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Plaintiff: David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John William Ogan, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Scott Wheat, LEAD ATTORNEY, CROWELL LAW OFFICES, SPOKANE, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Quinault Indian Nation, Plaintiff: Eric J Nielsen, LEAD ATTORNEY, NIELSEN BROMAN & KOCH, SEATTLE, WA; Fawn R Sharp, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Katherine K Krueger, LEAD ATTORNEY, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, AUBURN, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA; Naomi Leigh Stacy, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Raymond G. Dodge, Jr., TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA.

For Swinomish Tribal Community, Plaintiff: Alix Foster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; Allan E Olson, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, LACONNER, WA; Emily Rae Hutchinson Haley, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; James Miller Jannetta, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), LACONNER, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; James B Weber, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA.

Department of State, US, Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Department of State, US, Plaintiff: Charles R Shockey, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (7369), ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, WASHINGTON, DC.

For Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation, Plaintiff: Elizabeth F M Nason, LEAD ATTORNEY, YAKAMA INDIAN NATION, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, TOPPENISH, WA; Tim Roy Weaver, LEAD ATTORNEY, TIMOTHY R. WEAVER, YAKIMA, WA; Thomas A. Zeilman, LAW OFFICE OF THOMAS A. ZEILMAN, YAKIMA, WA.

Duwamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Duwamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

Aboriginal Swinomish, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Hoh Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kevin R Lyon, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Nettie Louise Alvarez, LEAD ATTORNEY, RALSTON & ALVAREZ, SEATTLE, WA; Richard S Ralston, LEAD ATTORNEY, WEINSTEIN & RILEY, SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Craig J Dorsay, PORTLAND, OR; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Lea Ann Easton, LAW OFFICE OF CRAIG J. DORSAY, ONE S.W. COLUMBIA, PORTLAND, OR; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Jamestown Band Clallam, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Lauren P Rasmussen, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; David Scott Mann, GENDLER & MANN, SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Charles Rivoire Hostnik, LEAD ATTORNEY, ANDERSON BURNS & HOSTNIK, TACOMA, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren P Rasmussen, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Michele C. Coyle, HOFHEIMER GARTLIR & GROSS LLP, NEW YORK, NY; Robert C Troyer, PRO HAC VICE, HOGAN LOVELLS U.S. LLP (CO), DENVER, CO; Stephen Hayes Suagee, OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL, PORT ANGELES, WA; Trent S.W. Crable, THE LAW OFFICE OF TRENT S.W. CRABLE, YPSILANTI, MI.

For Lummi Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Andrea Sue McNamara, LEAD ATTORNEY, SIMONARSON, VISSER, ZENDER & THURSTON, BELLINGHAM, WA; Daniel Alan Raas, LEAD ATTORNEY, RAAS JOHNSEN & STUEN, BELLINGHAM, WA; Harry L Johnsen, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, RAAS JOHNSEN & STUEN, BELLINGHAM, WA; Mary Michelle Neil, LEAD ATTORNEY, LUMMI INDIAN NATION, BELLINGHAM, WA.

For Makah Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: John B Arum, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ, CHESTNUT, VARNELL, BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Joshua Osborne-Klein, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT VARNELL BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Richard M Berley, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT, SEATTLE, WA; Brian C Gruber, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT VARNELL BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Marc Slonim, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT, SEATTLE, WA.

For Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Alan Charles. Stay, LEAD ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Gregory M. O'Leary, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Ann Lavi, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Matthew Phineas Bergman, LEAD ATTORNEY, BERGMAN DRAPER & LADENBURG PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, AUBURN, WA; Robert Leighton. Otsea, Jr., LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Karen D Allston, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Laura D. Weeks, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (MUCKLESHOOT), MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA.

For Nisqually Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Bill Tobin, LEAD ATTORNEY, VASHON, WA; Christina Carole Cushman, LEAD ATTORNEY, NISQUALLY INDIAN TRIBE, OLYMPIA, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Maryanne Elizabeth Mohan, NISQUALLY INDIAN TRIBE, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Nooksak Indian Tribe of Washington, Intervenor Plaintiff: David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Edward J Wurtz, LEAD ATTORNEY, BELLINGHAM, WA; Grett L Hurley, LEAD ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, DEMING, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Bree Healani Kame'enui-Ramirez, BETTS PATTERSON & MINES, SEATTLE, WA; Connie Sue Manos Martin, SCHWABE WILLIAMSON & WYATT (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Sandra L Ferguson, FERGUSON FIRM PLLC, SEATTLE, WA.

For Nooksak Indian Tribe of Washington, Intervenor Plaintiff: Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Grett L Hurley, LEAD ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, DEMING, WA; Jeffrey Jon Bode, LEAD ATTORNEY, BELLINGHAM, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Connie Sue Manos Martin, SCHWABE WILLIAMSON & WYATT (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Sandra L Ferguson, FERGUSON FIRM PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Port Gamble Band Clallam, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Lauren P Rasmussen, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; David Scott Mann, GENDLER & MANN, SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Puyallup Tribe of Indians, Intervenor Plaintiff: Annette Klapstein, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICE OF THE PUYALLUP INDIAN TRIBE, TACOMA, WA; Samuel J Stiltner, LEAD ATTORNEY, PUYALLUP TRIBE OF INDIANS, TACOMA, WA; John Howard Bell, PUYALLUP TRIBE OF INDIANS, TACOMA, WA.

For Quileute Indian Tribe, of the Quileute Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: David R West, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Katherine K Krueger, LEAD ATTORNEY, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Steven G Lingenbrink, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRUDELL & BOWEN, KIRKLAND, WA; Jeffrey C Young, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; O. Yale Lewis, III, LAW OFFICES OF O. YALE LEWIS III, SEATTLE, WA; Seth J Berntsen, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Quileute Indian Tribe, of the Quileute Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: David S Vogel, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; David R West, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; Jennifer D Bucher, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Richard Llewellyn Davies, LEAD ATTORNEY, DAVIES & JONES, PORT TOWNSEND, WA; Ruth A Kennedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Seth J Berntsen, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Steven G Lingenbrink, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRUDELL & BOWEN, KIRKLAND, WA; Katherine K Krueger, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; O. Yale Lewis, III, LAW OFFICES OF O. YALE LEWIS III, SEATTLE, WA.

For Quinault Indian Nation, also known as, Quinault Indian Nation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Eric J Nielsen, LEAD ATTORNEY, NIELSEN BROMAN & KOCH, SEATTLE, WA; Fawn R Sharp, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, AUBURN, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Naomi Leigh Stacy, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Raymond G. Dodge, Jr., TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA.

For Samish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Craig J Dorsay, LEAD ATTORNEY, PORTLAND, OR; James Miller Jannetta, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), LACONNER, WA.

For Sauk-Suiattle Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Regina E. Hovet, POCATELLO, ID; Ric W Armstrong, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, DEMING, WA.

For Skokomish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Brian H Collins, LEAD ATTORNEY, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, LEGAL DEPARTMENT, ARLINGTON, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Douglas B L Endreson, LEAD ATTORNEY, SONOSKY CHAMBERS SACHSE ENDRESON & PERRY, WASHINGTON, DC; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Richard A Guest, LEAD ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH TRIBAL ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, SHELTON, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Earle David Lees, III, Skokomish Tribal Attorney, SKOKOMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Joseph Christy, Jr, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40124-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Lauren P Rasmussen, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

Snoqualmie Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Squaxin Island, Tribe of Indians, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Bruce Owen Davies, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kevin R Lyon, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Ronald John Whitener, LEAD ATTORNEY, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE, WA; Sharon Ilene Haensly, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; David W Babcock, SHELTON, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kelly S Croman, MARINE VIEW VENTURES INC, TACOMA, WA; Nathan E. Schreiner, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA.

Steilacoom Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Steilacoom Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

For Stillaguamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David S Vogel, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Brian H Collins, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, LEGAL DEPARTMENT, ARLINGTON, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Scott Owen Mannakee, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, ARLINGTON, WA.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John William Ogan, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR; Laura Anne Sagolla, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Swinomish Tribal Community, Intervenor Plaintiff: Alix Foster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; Allan E Olson, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, LACONNER, WA; Sharon Ilene Haensly, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Emily Rae Hutchinson Haley, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; James Miller Jannetta, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), LACONNER, WA; James B Weber, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA.

For Tulalip Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Mason D Morisset, LEAD ATTORNEY, MORISSET SCHLOSSER JOZWIAK & SOMERVILLE, SEATTLE, WA; A Reid Allison, III, OFFICE OF RESERVATION ATTORNEY (TULALIP), TULALIP TRIBES OF WA, TULALIP, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Timothy Brewer, OFFICE OF RESERVATION ATTORNEY (TULALIP), TULALIP TRIBES OF WA, TULALIP, WA.

For Upper Skagit Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Andrew H Salter, LEAD ATTORNEY, TETON LAW GROUP LLC, JACKSON, WY; David Stoller Hawkins, LEAD ATTORNEY, UPPER SKAGIT INDIAN TRIBE, SEDRO WOOLLEY, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Edward Gerald Maloney, Jr., LEAD ATTORNEY, MT VERNON, WA; Harold Chesnin, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SEDRO WOOLLEY, WA; Cory J Albright, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Elizabeth F M Nason, LEAD ATTORNEY, YAKAMA INDIAN NATION, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, TOPPENISH, WA; Jack Warren Fiander, LEAD ATTORNEY, TOWTNUK LAW OFFICES LTD, SACRED GROUND LEGAL SERVICES INC, YAKIMA, WA; Tim Roy Weaver, LEAD ATTORNEY, TIMOTHY R. WEAVER, YAKIMA, WA; Thomas A. Zeilman, LAW OFFICE OF THOMAS A. ZEILMAN, YAKIMA, WA.

For Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Bret S Simmons, LEAD ATTORNEY, ROY SIMMONS & PARSONS, BELLINGHAM, WA; Howard G Arnett, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR; Martin E. Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP, PETERSEN, ET AL, BEND, OR; Tamara E MacLeod, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR.

For Conf Tribes of Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Christopher Beale Leahy, LEAD ATTORNEY, FREDERICKS, PELCYGER, HESTER & WHITE, LLC, LOUISVILLE, CO; John B. Midgley, LEAD ATTORNEY, COLUMBIA LEGAL SERVICES, SEATTLE, WA; M. Brent Leonhard, CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF THE UMATILLA INDIAN RESERVATION, PENDLETON, OR; Tim Simmons, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, PORTLAND, OR.

For Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho, Intervenor Plaintiff: David J Cummings, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, NEZ PERCE TRIBAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, LAPWAI, ID; Douglas R Nash, LEAD ATTORNEY, HOLLAND & HART, BOISE, ID; Julie Sobotta Kane, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, NEZ PERCE TRIBAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, LAPWAI, ID.

For Snohomish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

For WA State of, Defendant: Amy J MacKenzie, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRESTON GATES & ELLIS (AK), ANCHORAGE, AK; Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Ernest Lee Rushing, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Jon Peter Ferguson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ELLENSBURG, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Rene David Tomisser, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40126-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Bryce E Brown, Jr, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40113), TRANSPORTATION & PUBLIC CONSTRUCTION, OLYMPIA, WA; Douglas D Shaftel, PIERCE COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (CIVIL), CIVIL DIVISION, TACOMA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & A.D. LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, NATURAL RESOURCES, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Philip Michael Ferester, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Steve Edwin Dietrich, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For WA State of, Defendant: Harold Paul Dygert, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, HEALTH DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Jay Douglas Geck, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; John W. Hough, LEAD ATTORNEY, LANE POWELL (OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph S. Montecucco, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, TORTS DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Leland T. Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE, OLYMPIA, WA; Lynn Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TACOMA, WA; Marylin Mockensturn, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Charles Hargreaves, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, TORTS DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & A.D. LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Mary Sue Wilson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Philip Michael Ferester, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Sheila Deirdra Lynch, ATTORNEY GENERAL, FISH & WILDLIFE, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For Glynn Price, Trustee for A & K Trust, Respondent: David J Britton, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICE OF DAVID J BRITTON, TACOMA, WA; Edward Emmett Wolfe, WOLFE LAW OFFICES, BREMERTON, WA.

For A& K Trust, Respondent: J Scott Bougher, LEAD ATTORNEY, BISHOP CUNNINGHAM & ANDREWS, BREMERTON, WA; David B Gates, LAW OFFICE OF DAVID B. GATES, PORT ORCHARD, WA; Edward Emmett Wolfe, WOLFE LAW OFFICES, BREMERTON, WA.

For Skokomish Indian Tribe, Respondent: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Earle David Lees, III, Skokomish Tribal Attorney, SKOKOMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Suquamish Tribe, Respondent: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Howard G Arnett, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John William Ogan, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR.

Clam Acres, Respondent, Pro se; SHELTON, WA.

For Fisheries Department of the State of Washington, Intervenor Defendant: Ernest Lee Rushing, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Mary Sue Wilson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For Taylor United Inc, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Olympia Oyster Co, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Johnson & Gunstone Clams, a Washington Corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For GR Clam & Oyster Farm, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Cedric E Lindsay, an individual a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Minterbrook Oyster Company, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Robert M Smith, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Charles Murray, Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Willa Murray, a marital community a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Skookum Bay Oyster, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Wieghardt & Sons Inc, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Peter Heckes, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For United Property Owners of Washington, Intervenor Defendant: James Martin Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, JAMES M JOHNSON, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Oregon State of, Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J. Gazeley, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SALEM, OR; David D Swartling, LEAD ATTORNEY, MILLS MEYERS SWARTLING, SEATTLE, WA; Roger J DeHoog, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, OREGON DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SPECIAL LITIGATION UNIT, PORTLAND, OR; David E Leith, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SALEM, OR; Raymond Stillman Weber, MILLS MEYERS SWARTLING, SEATTLE, WA; Stephanie M Parent, PRO HAC VICE, OREGON DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (PORTLAND), PORTLAND, OR.

For Alaska State of, Intervenor Defendant: J Anne Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (AK), ANCHORAGE, AK; Michael A D Stanley, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK; Myles A Conway, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, STATE OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE, AK; Laura Christianne Bottger, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, STATE OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE, AK.

For Larry Alexander, Intervenor Defendant: Howard M. Goodfriend, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA; Malcolm L. Edwards, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA.

For Puget Sound Shellfish Growers, Intervenor Defendant: Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Laura Colthurst Kisielius, LEAD ATTORNEY, SNOHOMISH COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY (CIVIL), CIVIL DIVISION, EVERETT, WA; Marcus Pearson, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Robert M Smith, PRO HAC VICE, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For James Messmer/Girls Scouts of Western Washington, Intervenor Defendant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For John Hollowed, on behalf of the N.W. Indian Fisheries Commission, Interested Party: John James Hollowed, Sr., LEAD ATTORNEY, NORTHWEST INDIAN FISHERIES COMMISSION, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Gold Coast Oyster LLC, Interested Party: David Dillard Cullen, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Interested Party: John William Ogan, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR.

For Purse Seine Vessel Owners Association, Amicus: Robert Francis Kehoe, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Washington Trollers Association, Amicus: Paul Lawrence Anderson, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribes, Amicus: Jeffrey S. Schuster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Gary Westman, Amicus: Robert P Zuanich, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Alaska Trollers Assn, Amicus: Bruce Weyhrauch, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK.

For Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska, Amicus: David C Crosby, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK.

For Inner Sound Crab Association, Amicus: Daniel William Wyckoff, LEAD ATTORNEY, LACEY, WA.

For Washington Association of Counties, Amicus: Pamela Beth Loginsky, LEAD ATTORNEY, WASHINGTON ASSOCIATION OF PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Charmond Adkins, Intervenor: Eric Richter, LEAD ATTORNEY, HENKE & RICHTER, SEATTLE, WA; Howard M. Goodfriend, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA.

For Taylor Shellfish Company, Inc., Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Colthurst Kisielius, SNOHOMISH COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY (CIVIL), CIVIL DIVISION, EVERETT, WA.

For Seattle Shellfish LLC, Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Colthurst Kisielius, SNOHOMISH COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY (CIVIL), CIVIL DIVISION, EVERETT, WA.

For Blind Dog Enterprises, Ltd., doing business as, Arcadia Point Seafood, Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Colthurst Kisielius, SNOHOMISH COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY (CIVIL), CIVIL DIVISION, EVERETT, WA.

For Coast Oyster Company Inc, a Washington corporation, Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For E H Bendiksen Company Inc, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Bay Center Mariculture, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Long Island Oyster Co Inc, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Northern Oyster Co, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Dave Nesbitt, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Mareene Nesbitt, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Ruby Heckes, also known as, Willapa Bay Oyster Growers(83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For WA State of, Counter Claimant: Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & A.D. LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, NATURAL RESOURCES, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For WA State of, Cross Claimant: Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & A.D. LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, NATURAL RESOURCES, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

Page 1128

ORDER DENYING SUMMARY JUDGMENT RE: CERTAIN SPECIES AND DEEP-WATER HARVEST TO ALL COUNSEL OF RECORD:

EDWARD RAFEEDIE, United States District Judge.

The Court has read and considered the papers supporting and opposing the State of Washington's motion for partial summary judgement regarding certain species and deep-water harvest. The Court finds that the two theories advanced by the State of Washington are inconsistent with a proper interpretation of the Stevens Treaty. Accordingly, these theories are rejected, and partial summary judgment is DENIED.

INTRODUCTION

The State of Washington (" Washington" ) has moved for partial summary judgment to establish that the right of the tribes to harvest shellfish is limited to exclude:

(1) Species that were not harvested at or before treaty time, such as shrimp, scallops, squid or abalone
(2) Shellfish harvested in deep-water areas where no harvesting occurred at or before treaty time, such as sea cucumbers, sea urchins, octopus, geoduck and crab.

Standard for summary judgment

Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c) provides that summary judgment will be granted if the moving party can establish that there is " no genuine issue of material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." British Airways Board v. Boeing Co., 585 F.2d 946, 951 (9th Cir. 1978). It is the moving party's burden to inform the Court of the basis for its belief there are no genuine issues of material fact and this may be demonstrated by pointing out an absence of evidence to support the nonmoving party's case. Celotex Coro, v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 106 S.Ct. 2548, 91 L.Ed.2d 265 (1986).

Principles of Treaty Interpretation

According to United States v. Choctaw Nation, 179 U.S. 494, 21 S.Ct. 149, 45 L.Ed. 291, 309, 36 Ct.Cl. 573 (1900), the intentions of the parties to the treaty will control the treaty's interpretation. In determining the intentions, a Court should look to " the words used -- the words being interpreted, not literally nor loosely, but according to their ordinary signification. If the words be clear and explicit, leaving no room for doubt what the parties intended,

Page 1129

they must be interpreted according to their natural and ordinary significance." Id. (emphasis added).

Therefore, under the familiar cannon of statutory construction, the starting point for interpreting a statute (in this case a treaty) is the language of the statute itself and " absent a clearly expressed legislative intention to the contrary, . . . [treaty] language must ordinarily be regarded as conclusive." Consumer Product Safety Comm'n v. GTE Sylvania, Inc., 447 U.S. 102, 108, 100 S.Ct. 2051, 64 L.Ed.2d 766 (1980); See also Sumitomo Shoji America Inc., v. Avagliano, 457 U.S. 176, 180, 102 S.Ct. 2374, 72 L.Ed.2d 765 (1982) (" Clear import of treaty language controls unless application of the words of the treaty according to their obvious meaning effects a result inconsistent with the intent of expectations of its signatories" ).

Special canons of construction are applied to determine the meaning of Indian treaties. These canons provide that any ambiguities in language must be resolved in favor of the Indians, that the language should not be construed to the prejudice of the Indians, and that technical meanings should be avoided in favor of the understanding of the Indians. Washington v. Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Ass'n., 443 U.S. 658, 675-676, 99 S.Ct. 3055, 61 L.Ed.2d 823 (1979); Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 515, 528, 8 L.Ed. 483 (1832); Winters v. United States, 207 U.S. 564, 577, 28 S.Ct. 207, 52 L.Ed. 340 (1908); U.S. v. Winans, 198 U.S. 371, 25 S.Ct. 662, 49 L.Ed. 1089 (1905). Finally, the Supreme Court stated in United States v. Winans, 198 U.S. 371, 381, 25 S.Ct. 662, 49 L.Ed. 1089 (1905) that Indian treaties should not be viewed as grants of rights to the Indians, but as grants of rights from the Indians to the United States. Any rights which were not granted by the Indians to the United States were reserved by the Indians because the Indians already possessed them.

Washington Theory Number One: Species Limitation

Washington begins with a factual assertion that the Tribes did not harvest certain species of shellfish, such as shrimp and scallops (" named species" ), at or before treaty time. On that basis, Washington argues that the Stevens Treaty covers only species of fish harvested at or before treaty time, and that the Tribes therefore have no treaty right respecting the named species.

The starting point in evaluating this theory is the treaty language itself:

The right of taking fish at usual and accustomed grounds and stations is further secured to said Indians in common with all citizens of the Territory and of erecting temporary houses for the purpose of curing, together with the privilege of hunting and gathering roots and berries on open and unclaimed lands. Provided, however, that they shall not take shell-fish from any beds staked or cultivated by citizens.

The Court has already held that shellfish are fish. Since the named species are shellfish, they are fish as well, and are covered by the treaty. There is no language in the treaty that undermines these simple propositions.

Any attempt by Washington to read such a limitation into the treaty must fail. All of the canons of treaty construction obstruct such an inference, but one such canon is particularly lethal to Washington's theory: the " reservation of rights" canon. It is well-settled that treaties are to be construed as a grant from the Indians to the United States, not the reverse, and that any rights specified in the treaty

Page 1130

are deemed " reserved" by the Indians. See, e.g. Winans. supra; U.S. v. Washington, 520 F.2d 676, 684 (9th Cir. 1975). Prior to the signing of the Stevens Treaty, the Indians had the absolute right to harvest any species they desired. They had the right to harvest shrimp and scallops; whether or not they exercised that right is irrelevant. The right to fish reserved in the treaty therefore encompasses a right to harvest the named species.

This finding is consistent with the prior findings of this Court. In U.S. v. Washington, 384 F.Supp. 312, 401 (W.D. Wash. 1974), Judge Boldt established as a conclusion of law that:

[t]he right secured by the treaties to the Plaintiff tribes is not limited as to species of fish, the origin of fish, the purpose or use, or the time or manner of taking, except to the extent necessary to achieve preservation of the resource and to allow non-Indians an opportunity to fish in common with treaty right fishermen outside reservation boundaries.

Thus the law of the case as well as the principles of treaty interpretation repudiates the first theory advanced by Washington.

Washington Theory Number Two: Deep-Water Harvest

The second limit on the Tribes' treaty rights sought by Washington relies on the " usual and accustomed grounds and stations" clause in the Stevens Treaty. Washington argues that deep-water areas are excluded as a matter of law from all Tribes' usual and accustomed grounds, because none of the tribes engaged in deep-water harvest at or before treaty time.

Determination of each tribe's usual and accustomed grounds requires a factual inquiry by the Court; each tribe must come forward and prove its usual and accustomed grounds and stations at the time the treaty was signed. However, Washington wishes to pre-empt some portion of this factual determination, and have the Court exclude all deep-water areas from treaty coverage. The Court declines to make such a finding.

As discussed above, prior to the signing of the Stevens Treaty, the Tribes had the absolute right to fish for whatever species they desired within their usual and accustomed grounds. Similarly, they had the absolute right to plumb any depths within those usual and accustomed grounds. Just as it is irrelevant that the Tribes chose not to harvest the named species, it is irrelevant that they could not, because of technological limitations, harvest shellfish in deep-water areas. Had it been availed of the technology, any tribe could have harvested shellfish in the deep waters of their usual and accustomed grounds, areas where they had previously fished only for anadromous fish.

Consistent with these observations, the Court concludes as a matter of law that usual and accustomed grounds and stations do not vary with the species of fish, and that the usual and accustomed grounds and stations for non-anadromous fish are coextensive with those of anadromous fish. And, as there is ample evidence that at least some of the tribes' usual and accustomed grounds and stations for anadromous fish include deep-water areas, See e.g., United States v. Washington, 384 F.Supp. at 367, 369, 371, 374, the Court will not exclude deep-water areas from any determination of usual and accustomed grounds and stations in this case.

IT IS SO ORDERED.

Page 1131

The Clerk of the Court is directed to send copies of this Order to all counsel of record and others entitled to notice, via United States mail, immediately.


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