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Hilao v. Estate of Ferdinand E. Marcos

filed: September 11, 1996.


Appeal from the United States District Court for the Central District of California. D.C. No. MISC 30412-R. Manuel L. Real, District Judge, Presiding.

Before: Betty B. Fletcher, Harry Pregerson, and Pamela Ann Rymer, Circuit Judges. Opinion by Judge Fletcher.

Author: Fletcher

FLETCHER, Circuit Judge:

This appeal arises out of proceedings to enforce a judgment of nearly $2 billion against the Estate of Ferdinand E. Marcos in favor of nearly 10,000 class plaintiffs (referred to hereinafter collectively as "Hilao") who suffered (or are family members of those who suffered) torture, "disappearance", and summary execution during Marcos' tenure as president of the Philippines.*fn1 Swiss Bank Corporation and Credit Suisse (the Banks) appeal jointly from an order of the district court directing them to deposit into the court registry all assets in deposit accounts at the Banks that are claimed by the Estate of Ferdinand Marcos. We have jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1292(a)(1) and vacate the order.


Hilao registered its Hawai'i judgment against the Estate in the Central District of California in May 1995 pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1963. That same month, writs of execution and notices of levy, together with notices of deposition in aid of execution, were served on the Los Angeles wholesale branch of Credit Suisse and on the Los Angeles representative office of Swiss Bank Corporation.*fn2 The writs and notices purported to levy upon deposit accounts "opened, closed or controlled, directly or indirectly, by Ferdinand E. Marcos in his own name or under [any of 26 enumerated] aliases or pseudonyms". The Banks have submitted apparently undisputed declarations stating that the Los Angeles offices have no deposit accounts or information concerning deposit accounts in those names and that the Los Angeles offices have no access to information concerning the Banks' deposit accounts located in Switzerland. Since 1986, the Marcos accounts in banks in Switzerland have been frozen by order of the Swiss Federal Council or the Swiss Federal Office of Police in connection with a request by the Republic of the Philippines for international legal assistance; the Republic has alleged that the funds on deposit were stolen from the government's coffers and has attempted to reclaim them. Each Bank completed the required garnishee's memorandum in response to the notice of levy and provided the same information.

On 17 May 1995, the Banks both moved to vacate and quash the levies and the deposition notices. Before replying to these motions, Hilao served the Banks with additional notices of depositions. Hilao and the Banks then agreed that the Banks would adjourn the hearing date on the motions to vacate and would produce certain witnesses and documents; the Banks reserved all rights to object to Hilao's execution and discovery efforts. The banks produced documents from their Los Angeles offices, made certain objections to discovery notices and subpoenas, and produced four deponents in Los Angeles and Toronto.

On 20 October 1995, Hilao moved for entry of judgment against the Banks in the full amount of the judgment against the Estate and accrued interest for the Banks' alleged failure to comply with the levies. Later, Hilao moved for sanctions against the Banks.

On 8 December 1995, the district court heard argument on all the pending motions. On 11 December, the court entered an order that, while not mentioning any of the pending motions, directed the Banks to deposit into the court registry "as an interpleader proceeding all assets in the possession of the BANKS that are the subject matter of this proceeding".

The Banks filed a notice of appeal on 14 December 1995. The same day, the Banks moved the district court for a stay of the order pending appeal; the motion was denied on 19 December 1995. This court then granted a stay of the district court's order pending this expedited appeal.


Questions of law, whether federal or state, are reviewed de novo. Twenty-Three Nineteen Creekside, Inc. v. Commissioner, 59 F.3d 130, 131 (9th Cir. 1995), cert. denied, U.S. , 134 L. Ed. 2d 111, 116 S. Ct. 1034 (1996); Salve Regina College v. Russell, 499 U.S. 225, 231, 113 L. Ed. 2d 190, 111 S. Ct. 1217 (1991). While a district court's decision to enter an injunction is reviewed for an abuse of discretion, America West Airlines, Inc. v. National Mediation Board, 986 F.2d 1252, 1258 (9th Cir. 1993), issues of law underlying a district court's injunction are reviewed de novo, Miller v. California Pacific Medical Center, 19 F.3d 449, 455 (9th Cir. 1994). A district court's interpretation of federal rules is reviewed de novo. Claar v. Burlington Northern R.R. Co., 29 F.3d 499, 500 (9th Cir. 1994) (Federal Rules of Evidence).


I. Effectiveness ...

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