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United States v. State

United States District Court, W.D. Washington

February 11, 2000

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, et al., Plaintiffs,
v.
STATE OF WASHINGTON, et al., Defendants

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Dr Howard F Horton, Special Master, Pro se, CORVALLIS, OR.

For Quinault Indian Nation, Movant: John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Schuyten/Bivalves, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. McCrory/Pickering Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Roundtree/Quiet Water Clams, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Olson/Olson Oyster Co., Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Von Allmen/Acme Seafood, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Robbins/Hama Hama, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For H. Jones/Carol Farms, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Vimont/Totkum Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Engman/Engman Oyster Farm, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Rawding/Rawding Oyster Company, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Jensen/Jensen's Sea Ranch, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Miller/Millers Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. MIller/RE Miller Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Roy M. Taylor, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Steele/Rock Point Oyster, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Lentz/Chelsea Farms, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Babare/Babare Bros., Inc., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Broders/Broders Seafood, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For E. Yamashita/Western Oyster Company, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Mazzoncini/Joe Leonard Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Johnson/Marrowstone Island Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Martinen/Totten Rock Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L.Bishop/Little Skookum Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Stevens/Stevens & Son Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Hall/Manke Lumber, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

J. Harvey/Skookum Clam and Oyster Farm, Movant, Pro se, Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Hall/Arcadia Shellfish LLC, Movant: Robert M Smith, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For T. Sheldon/Potlach Oyster Company, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Wallin Bennett/Wallin's Oysters, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Bruce Brenner/JJ Brenner Oyster Company, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L. Iraheta/Girl Scouts, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Evan Adams/Sound Fresh Clams & Oysters, Movant, Pro se.

For Evan Adams/Sound Fresh Clams & Oysters, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Draper/Draper Tree, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Gray/Oliver Gray & Sons, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Pete Hinton/Salty Dog Seafood, Inc., Movant, Pro se.

For Pete Hinton/Salty Dog Seafood, Inc., Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For M. Taylor/Taylor Homestead Clams, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Scott Gellatly/McDonald Mollusca, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Rae/R-Bay Seafood, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Clark/G& R Quality Seafood, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Frances F. Allen/Walter E. Allen Estate, Movant, Pro se.

For Frances F. Allen/Walter E. Allen Estate, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For S. Price/Price Clam, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Mathew Buldis/National Fish & Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For J. Gibbons/Seattle Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For G. Schreiber/Schreiber Shellfish, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Joan S. Russell/Sea Spray Mariculture, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Bleeker/Seafood Northwest, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For N. Jones/Sweetwater Shellfish Farm, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Brandt Orme/Deer Harbor Shellfish, Movant, Pro se.

For Brandt Orme/Deer Harbor Shellfish, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For T. Morris/Calm Cove Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Janet Kron/Kron Enterprises, Movant, Pro se.

For Janet Kron/Kron Enterprises, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For P. Patterson/John Sells Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Fagergren/Calm Cove Oyster Co., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Renae Gunstone-White, Movant, Pro se.

For Renae Gunstone-White, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For D. Fraser/Mats Mats Oyster, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For R. Norris/Russ' Shellfish, Movant: Dennis Dean Reynolds, LEAD ATTORNEY, BAINBRIDGE ISLAND, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For L. Amiotte/Clam Fresh, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Karen K. Moran/Navy Yard Oyster Co., Inc., Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For S. Wang/Sunrise Marine, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Carl Barringer/Carl's Oysters, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Chuck and Kelli Dahman, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For A. Hanse/Thorndyke Bay Clam, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Gary Webb/Nancy Gannon/Eagle Rock Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Linda M. Ryan/Olympic Shellfish, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Laurra McGregor/Lyden Shellfish, Movant, Pro se.

For Laurra McGregor/Lyden Shellfish, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Alan C. Moss/Topeeksin, Movant, Pro se.

For Alan C. Moss/Topeeksin, Movant: Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Mark Sawyer/Buck Bay Shellfish Farm LLC, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Breena Michelle Roos, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For C. Johnson/Oakland Seafoods, Movant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Girls Scouts of Western Washington, Movant: Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

Katharine Cissna, Movant, Pro se.

For United States of America, Plaintiff: Ann C Juliano, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD INDIAN RESOURCES SECTION, WASHINGTON, DC; Christopher Lee Pickrell, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Eileen Marie Cooney, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, NOAA - GENERAL COUNSEL, SEATTLE, WA; Lawrence S Roberts, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD INDIAN RESOURCES SECTION, WASHINGTON, DC; Robert Lee Gulley, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD WILDLIFE & MARINE RESOURCES, WASHINGTON, DC; Samuel D Rauch, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENRD WILDLIFE & MARINE RESOURCES, WASHINGTON, DC; Vernon Peterson, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF THE REGIONAL SOLICITOR, PORTLAND, OR; William Anthony White, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, WASHINGTON, DC; Anastasia D. Bartlett, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Colleen Kelley, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF THE REGIONAL SOLICITOR, PACIFIC N.W. REGION, PORTLAND, OR; Judith Rabinowitz, U S DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES DIV, SAN FRANCISCO, CA; Kerry Jane Keefe, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Peter C Monson, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCE INDIAN RES. SECTION, DENVER, CO; Philip H Lynch, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (TACOMA), TACOMA, WA; Vanessa Boyd Willard, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (ENRD) (CO), DENVER, CO.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Plaintiff: David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John William Ogan, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Scott Wheat, LEAD ATTORNEY, CROWELL LAW OFFICES, SPOKANE, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Quinault Indian Nation, Plaintiff: Eric J Nielsen, LEAD ATTORNEY, NIELSEN BROMAN & KOCH, SEATTLE, WA; Fawn R Sharp , LEAD ATTORNEY, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Katherine K Krueger, LEAD ATTORNEY, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA; Naomi Leigh Stacy, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Raymond G. Dodge, Jr., TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA.

For Swinomish Tribal Community, Plaintiff: Alix Foster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; Allan E Olson, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA; Emily Rae Hutchinson Haley, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; James Miller Jannetta, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; James B Weber, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA.

Department of State, US, Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Department of State, US, Plaintiff: Charles R Shockey, LEAD ATTORNEY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (7369), ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, WASHINGTON, DC.

For Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation, Plaintiff: Elizabeth F M Nason, LEAD ATTORNEY, YAKAMA INDIAN NATION, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, TOPPENISH, WA; Tim Roy Weaver, LEAD ATTORNEY, TIMOTHY R. WEAVER, YAKIMA, WA; Thomas A. Zeilman, LAW OFFICE OF THOMAS A. ZEILMAN, YAKIMA, WA.

Duwamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Duwamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

Aboriginal Swinomish, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Hoh Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kevin R Lyon, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Nettie Louise Alvarez, LEAD ATTORNEY, RALSTON & ALVAREZ, SEATTLE, WA; Richard S Ralston, LEAD ATTORNEY, WEINSTEIN & RILEY, SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Craig J Dorsay, PORTLAND, OR; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Lea Ann Easton, LAW OFFICE OF CRAIG J. DORSAY, PORTLAND, OR; Phillip Evan Katzen, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Jamestown Band Clallam, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Lauren P Rasmussen, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; David Scott Mann, GENDLER & MANN, SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Charles Rivoire Hostnik, LEAD ATTORNEY, ANDERSON BURNS & HOSTNIK, TACOMA, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren P Rasmussen, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Michele C. Coyle, HOFHEIMER GARTLIR & GROSS LLP, NEW YORK, NY; Robert C Troyer, PRO HAC VICE, HOGAN LOVELLS U.S. LLP (CO), DENVER, CO; Stephen Hayes Suagee, OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL, PORT ANGELES, WA; Trent S.W. Crable, THE LAW OFFICE OF TRENT S.W. CRABLE, YPSILANTI, MI.

For Lummi Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Andrea Sue McNamara, LEAD ATTORNEY, SIMONARSON, VISSER, ZENDER & THURSTON, BELLINGHAM, WA; Daniel Alan Raas, LEAD ATTORNEY, RAAS JOHNSEN & STUEN, BELLINGHAM, WA; Harry L Johnsen, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, RAAS JOHNSEN & STUEN, BELLINGHAM, WA; Mary Michelle Neil, LEAD ATTORNEY, LUMMI INDIAN NATION, BELLINGHAM, WA.

For Makah Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: John B Arum, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ, CHESTNUT, VARNELL, BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Joshua Osborne-Klein, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT VARNELL BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Richard M Berley, LEAD ATTORNEY, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT, SEATTLE, WA; Brian C Gruber, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT VARNELL BERLEY & SLONIM, SEATTLE, WA; Marc Slonim, ZIONTZ CHESTNUT, SEATTLE, WA.

For Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Alan Charles. Stay, LEAD ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Gregory M. O'Leary, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Ann Lavi, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Matthew Phineas Bergman, LEAD ATTORNEY, BERGMAN DRAPER & LADENBURG PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Robert Leighton. Otsea, Jr., LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Karen D Allston, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Laura D. Weeks, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (MUCKLESHOOT), MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA.

For Nisqually Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Bill Tobin, LEAD ATTORNEY, VASHON, WA; Christina Carole Cushman, LEAD ATTORNEY, NISQUALLY INDIAN TRIBE, OLYMPIA, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Maryanne Elizabeth Mohan, NISQUALLY INDIAN TRIBE, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Nooksak Indian Tribe of Washington, Intervenor Plaintiff: David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Edward J Wurtz, LEAD ATTORNEY, BELLINGHAM, WA; Grett L Hurley, LEAD ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, DEMING, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Bree Healani Kame'enui-Ramirez, BETTS PATTERSON & MINES, SEATTLE, WA; Connie Sue Manos Martin, SCHWABE WILLIAMSON & WYATT (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Sandra L Ferguson, FERGUSON FIRM PLLC, SEATTLE, WA.

For Nooksak Indian Tribe of Washington, Intervenor Plaintiff: Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Grett L Hurley, LEAD ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, DEMING, WA; Jeffrey Jon Bode, LEAD ATTORNEY, BELLINGHAM, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Connie Sue Manos Martin, SCHWABE WILLIAMSON & WYATT (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Sandra L Ferguson, FERGUSON FIRM PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Port Gamble Band Clallam, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David McElroy, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Lauren P Rasmussen, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Vernle C Durocher, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, DORSEY & WHITNEY, MINNEAPOLIS, MN; David Scott Mann, GENDLER & MANN, SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Puyallup Tribe of Indians, Intervenor Plaintiff: Annette Klapstein, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICE OF THE PUYALLUP INDIAN TRIBE, TACOMA, WA; Debra S O'Gara, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICE OF THE PUYALLUP INDIAN TRIBE, TACOMA, WA; Samuel J Stiltner, LEAD ATTORNEY, PUYALLUP TRIBE OF INDIANS, TACOMA, WA; John Howard Bell, PUYALLUP TRIBE OF INDIANS, TACOMA, WA.

For Quileute Indian Tribe of the Quileute Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: David R West, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Katherine K Krueger, LEAD ATTORNEY, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Steven G Lingenbrink, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRUDELL & BOWEN, KIRKLAND, WA; Jeffrey C Young, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; O. Yale Lewis, III, LAW OFFICES OF O. YALE LEWIS III, SEATTLE, WA; Seth J Berntsen, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Quileute Indian Tribe of the Quileute Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: David S Vogel, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; David R West, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; Jennifer D Bucher, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER, SEATTLE, WA; John Arthur Tondini, LEAD ATTORNEY, BYRNES KELLER CROMWELL LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Richard Llewellyn Davies, LEAD ATTORNEY, DAVIES & JONES, PORT TOWNSEND, WA; Ruth A Kennedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Seth J Berntsen, LEAD ATTORNEY, GARVEY SCHUBERT BARER (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Steven G Lingenbrink, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRUDELL & BOWEN, KIRKLAND, WA; Katherine K Krueger, QUILEUTE NATURAL RESOURCES, LAPUSH, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; O. Yale Lewis, III, LAW OFFICES OF O. YALE LEWIS III, SEATTLE, WA.

For Quinault Indian Nation, also known as Quinault Indian Nation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Eric J Nielsen, LEAD ATTORNEY, NIELSEN BROMAN & KOCH, SEATTLE, WA; Fawn R Sharp, LEAD ATTORNEY, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Richard Reich, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, MUCKLESHOOT INDIAN TRIBE, AUBURN, WA; Lauren King, FOSTER PEPPER PLLC, SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Naomi Leigh Stacy, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Raymond G. Dodge, Jr., TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH NATION, WA.

For Samish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Craig J Dorsay, LEAD ATTORNEY, PORTLAND, OR; James Miller Jannetta, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA.

For Sauk-Suiattle Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Regina E. Hovet, POCATELLO, ID; Ric W Armstrong, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, NOOKSACK INDIAN TRIBE, DEMING, WA.

For Skokomish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Amy Christine Lewis, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Brian H Collins, LEAD ATTORNEY, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, LEGAL DEPARTMENT, ARLINGTON, WA; Clemencia Castro-Woolery, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Douglas B L Endreson, LEAD ATTORNEY, SONOSKY CHAMBERS SACHSE ENDRESON & PERRY, WASHINGTON, DC; Kathryn J Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, EISENHOWER & CARLSON, TACOMA, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Richard A Guest, LEAD ATTORNEY, SKOKOMISH TRIBAL ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, SHELTON, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Tracey Anne Thompson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TEAMSTERS LOCAL UNION NO 117, TUKWILA, WA; Earle David Lees, III, Skokomish Tribal Attorney, SKOKOMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Joseph Christy, Jr, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40124-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Lauren P Rasmussen, LAW OFFICES OF LAUREN P RASMUSSEN, SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

Snoqualmie Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Squaxin Island, Tribe of Indians, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Bruce Owen Davies, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kevin R Lyon, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Ronald John Whitener, LEAD ATTORNEY, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE, WA; Sharon Ilene Haensly, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; David W Babcock, SHELTON, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Kelly S Croman, MARINE VIEW VENTURES INC, TACOMA, WA; Nathan E. Schreiner, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA.

Steilacoom Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff, Pro se.

For Steilacoom Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

For Stillaguamish Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; David S Vogel, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Brian H Collins, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, LEGAL DEPARTMENT, ARLINGTON, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Scott Owen Mannakee, STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS, ARLINGTON, WA.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John William Ogan, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR; Laura Anne Sagolla, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Swinomish Tribal Community, Intervenor Plaintiff: Alix Foster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; Allan E Olson, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA; Sharon Ilene Haensly, LEAD ATTORNEY, SQUAXIN ISLAND LEGAL DEPT, SHELTON, WA; Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Emily Rae Hutchinson Haley, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LA CONNER, WA; James Miller Jannetta, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY (SWINOMISH), SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA; James B Weber, OFFICE OF THE TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL COMMUNITY, LACONNER, WA.

For Tulalip Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Mason D Morisset, LEAD ATTORNEY, MORISSET SCHLOSSER JOZWIAK & SOMERVILLE, SEATTLE, WA; A Reid Allison, III, OFFICE OF RESERVATION ATTORNEY (TULALIP), TULALIP TRIBES OF WA, TULALIP, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Timothy Brewer, OFFICE OF RESERVATION ATTORNEY (TULALIP), TULALIP TRIBES OF WA, TULALIP, WA.

For Upper Skagit Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Andrew H Salter, LEAD ATTORNEY, TETON LAW GROUP LLC, JACKSON, WY; David Stoller Hawkins, LEAD ATTORNEY, UPPER SKAGIT INDIAN TRIBE, SEDRO WOOLLEY, WA; David LaSarte-Meeks, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Edward Gerald Maloney, Jr., LEAD ATTORNEY, MT VERNON, WA; Harold Chesnin, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF TRIBAL ATTORNEY, SEDRO WOOLLEY, WA; Cory J Albright, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Riyaz Amir Kanji, KANJI & KATZEN (MI), ANN ARBOR, MI.

For Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Elizabeth F M Nason, LEAD ATTORNEY, YAKAMA INDIAN NATION, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, TOPPENISH, WA; Jack Warren Fiander, LEAD ATTORNEY, TOWTNUK LAW OFFICES LTD, SACRED GROUND LEGAL SERVICES INC, YAKIMA, WA; Tim Roy Weaver, LEAD ATTORNEY, TIMOTHY R. WEAVER, YAKIMA, WA; Thomas A. Zeilman, LAW OFFICE OF THOMAS A. ZEILMAN, YAKIMA, WA.

For Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Bret S Simmons, LEAD ATTORNEY, ROY SIMMONS & PARSONS, BELLINGHAM, WA; Howard G Arnett, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR; Martin E. Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KARNOPP, PETERSEN, ET AL, BEND, OR; Tamara E MacLeod, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR.

For Conf Tribes of Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, Intervenor Plaintiff: Christopher Beale Leahy, LEAD ATTORNEY, FREDERICKS, PELCYGER, HESTER & WHITE, LLC, LOUISVILLE, CO; John B. Midgley, LEAD ATTORNEY, COLUMBIA LEGAL SERVICES, SEATTLE, WA; M. Brent Leonhard, CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF THE UMATILLA INDIAN RESERVATION, PENDLETON, OR; Tim Simmons, U.S. ATTORNEY'S OFFICE, PORTLAND, OR.

For Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho, Intervenor Plaintiff: David J Cummings, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, NEZ PERCE TRIBAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, LAPWAI, ID; Douglas R Nash, LEAD ATTORNEY, HOLLAND & HART, BOISE, ID; Julie Sobotta Kane, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF LEGAL COUNSEL, NEZ PERCE TRIBAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, LAPWAI, ID.

For Snohomish Indian Tribe, Intervenor Plaintiff: Phillip Evan Katzen, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Jill A. Salmi, LAW OFFICE OF JILL A. SALMI, SEATTLE, WA.

For WA State of, Defendant: Amy J MacKenzie, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRESTON GATES & ELLIS (AK), ANCHORAGE, AK; Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), EDUCATION, OLYMPIA, WA; Ernest Lee Rushing, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Jon Peter Ferguson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ELLENSBURG, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Rene David Tomisser, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40126-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Bryce E Brown, Jr, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40113), TRANSPORTATION & PUBLIC CONSTRUCTION, OLYMPIA, WA; Douglas D Shaftel, PIERCE COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY'S OFFICE (CIVIL), CIVIL DIVISION, TACOMA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & AD LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, NATURAL RESOURCES, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Philip Michael Ferester, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Steve Edwin Dietrich, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For WA State of, Defendant: Harold Paul Dygert, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, HEALTH DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Jay Douglas Geck, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; John W. Hough, LEAD ATTORNEY, LANE POWELL (OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph S. Montecucco, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, TORTS DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Leland T. Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE, OLYMPIA, WA; Lynn Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, TACOMA, WA; Marylin Mockensturn, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Michael S Grossmann, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Charles Hargreaves, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, TORTS DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & AD LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Mary Sue Wilson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Philip Michael Ferester, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Sheila Deirdra Lynch, ATTORNEY GENERAL, FISH & WILDLIFE, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For Glynn Price, Trustee for A & K Trust, Respondent: David J Britton, LEAD ATTORNEY, LAW OFFICE OF DAVID J BRITTON, TACOMA, WA; Edward Emmett Wolfe, WOLFE LAW OFFICES, BREMERTON, WA.

For A& K Trust, Respondent: J Scott Bougher, LEAD ATTORNEY, BISHOP CUNNINGHAM & ANDREWS, BREMERTON, WA; David B Gates, LAW OFFICE OF DAVID B. GATES, PORT ORCHARD, WA; Edward Emmett Wolfe, WOLFE LAW OFFICES, BREMERTON, WA.

For Skokomish Indian Tribe, Respondent: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Cory J Albright, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Earle David Lees, III, Skokomish Tribal Attorney, SKOKOMISH, WA; John Curtright Sledd, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Lori Ellen Nies, TRIBAL ATTORNEY, TAHOLAH, WA; Phillip Evan Katzen, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Rob Roy Smith, KILPATRICK TOWNSEND & STOCKTON LLP (WA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Suquamish Tribe, Respondent: Ann Elizabeth Tweedy, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Howard G Arnett, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, KARNOPP PETERSEN, BEND, OR; Jane Garrett Steadman, LEAD ATTORNEY, KANJI & KATZEN (WA), SEATTLE, WA; Michelle Hansen, LEAD ATTORNEY, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; James Rittenhouse Bellis, SUQUAMISH TRIBE, SUQUAMISH, WA; John William Ogan, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR.

Clam Acres, Respondent, Pro se.

For Fisheries Department of the State of Washington, Intervenor Defendant: Ernest Lee Rushing, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Mary Sue Wilson, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For Taylor United Inc, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Olympia Oyster Co, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Johnson & Gunstone Clams, a Washington Corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For GR Clam & Oyster Farm, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Cedric E Lindsay, an individual a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Minterbrook Oyster Company, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Robert M Smith, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Charles Murray, Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Willa Murray, a marital community a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA.

For Skookum Bay Oyster, a Washington corporation a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; Charles Christian Sipos, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Michael Haldon Himes, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE (SEA), SEATTLE, WA; Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Murray Taylor, an individual a/k/a Puget Sound Shellfish Growers (89-3), Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; James R Rasband, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA.

For Roy Taylor, an individual, Intervenor Defendant: Albert Gidari, Jr, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA; James R Rasband, LEAD ATTORNEY, PERKINS COIE, SEATTLE, WA.

For Wieghardt & Sons Inc, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Peter Heckes, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For United Property Owners of Washington, Intervenor Defendant: James Martin Johnson, LEAD ATTORNEY, JAMES M JOHNSON, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Oregon State of, Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J. Gazeley, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SALEM, OR; David D Swartling, LEAD ATTORNEY, MILLS MEYERS SWARTLING, SEATTLE, WA; Roger J DeHoog, LEAD ATTORNEY, PRO HAC VICE, OREGON DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SPECIAL LITIGATION UNIT, PORTLAND, OR; David E Leith, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SALEM, OR; Raymond Stillman Weber, MILLS MEYERS SWARTLING, SEATTLE, WA; Stephanie M Parent, PRO HAC VICE, OREGON DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (PORTLAND), PORTLAND, OR.

For Alaska State of, Intervenor Defendant: J Anne Nelson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (AK), ANCHORAGE, AK; Michael A D Stanley, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK; Myles A Conway, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, STATE OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE, AK; Laura Christianne Bottger, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, STATE OF ALASKA, ANCHORAGE, AK.

For Larry Alexander, Intervenor Defendant: Howard M. Goodfriend, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA; Malcolm L. Edwards, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA.

For James Messmer/Girls Scouts of Western Washington, Intervenor Defendant: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, LEAD ATTORNEY, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For John Hollowed, on behalf of the N.W. Indian Fisheries Commission, Interested Party: John James Hollowed, Sr., LEAD ATTORNEY, NORTHWEST INDIAN FISHERIES COMMISSION, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Gold Coast Oyster LLC, Interested Party: David Dillard Cullen, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Suquamish Indian Tribe, Interested Party: John William Ogan, KARNOPP PETERSEN LLP, BEND, OR.

For Purse Seine Vessel Owners Association, Amicus: Robert Francis Kehoe, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Washington Trollers Association, Amicus: Paul Lawrence Anderson, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribes, Amicus: Jeffrey S. Schuster, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Gary Westman, Amicus: Robert P Zuanich, LEAD ATTORNEY, SEATTLE, WA.

For Alaska Trollers Assn, Amicus: Bruce Weyhrauch, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK.

For Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska, Amicus: David C Crosby, LEAD ATTORNEY, JUNEAU, AK.

For Inner Sound Crab Association, Amicus: Daniel William Wyckoff, LEAD ATTORNEY, LACEY, WA.

For Washington Association of Counties, Amicus: Pamela Beth Loginsky, LEAD ATTORNEY, WASHINGTON ASSOCIATION OF PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS, OLYMPIA, WA.

For Charmond Adkins, Intervenor: Eric Richter, LEAD ATTORNEY, HENKE & RICHTER, SEATTLE, WA; Howard M. Goodfriend, LEAD ATTORNEY, EDWARDS SIEH SMITH & GOODFRIEND, SEATTLE, WA.

For Taylor Shellfish Company, Inc., Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Seattle Shellfish LLC, Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Blind Dog Enterprises, Ltd., doing business as Arcadia Point Seafood, Intervenor: Samuel Wilmore Plauche, IV, PLAUCHE & CARR LLP, SEATTLE, WA.

For Coast Oyster Company Inc, a Washington corporation, Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For E H Bendiksen Company Inc, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Bay Center Mariculture, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Long Island Oyster Co Inc, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Northern Oyster Co, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Dave Nesbitt, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Mareene Nesbitt, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Ruby Heckes, also known as Willapa Bay Oyster Growers (83-3 & C83-117T), Intervenor Defendant: Barbara J Kastama, LEAD ATTORNEY, CORR CRONIN MICHELSON BAUMGARDNER & PREECE, SEATTLE, WA; Steven Craig Marshall, LEAD ATTORNEY, MERCER ISLAND, WA.

For Laurene Oldham, Intervenor Defendant: Eric Richter, LEAD ATTORNEY, HENKE & RICHTER, SEATTLE, WA; John A. Roberts, Jr., LEAD ATTORNEY, HENKE & RICHTER, SEATTLE, WA.

For WA State of, Counter Claimant: Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), EDUCATION, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & AD LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

For WA State of, Cross Claimant: Colleen G Warren, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (EDU-OLY), EDUCATION, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph Earl Shorin, III, LEAD ATTORNEY, OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION, OLYMPIA, WA; Laura J Watson, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40117-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Matthew Alan Love, LEAD ATTORNEY, VAN NESS FELDMAN, LLP, SEATTLE, WA; Noah Guzzo Purcell, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE (40110-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA; Robert Kirk Costello, LEAD ATTORNEY, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Fronda C Woods, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, LICENSING & AD LAW, OLYMPIA, WA; Joseph V Panesko, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, OLYMPIA, WA; Michael S Grossmann, ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE, FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PARKS, OLYMPIA, WA; Terence A Pruit, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF WASHINGTON (40100-OLY), OLYMPIA, WA.

Page 1323

STIPULATION AND ORDER RE: FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE SALMON

Honorable BARBARA JACOBS ROTHSTEIN, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE.

Page 1324

STIPULATION

The parties to this Stipulation agree to the arrangements herein set forth to facilitate adoption of a new Annex to the Pacific Salmon Treaty between the United States and Canada. This Stipulation and Order is entered into under the authority of Paragraph 14 of the court's March 22, 1974 permanent injunction in United States v. Washington, 384 F.Supp. 312, 416-17 (W.D. Wash. 1974) (Dkt #508).

I. PARTIES AND DEFINITIONS

1. The parties to this Stipulation are:

The Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe
The Lower Elwha S'Klallam Tribe

Page 1325

The Lummi Nation
The Makah Indian Tribe
The Nooksack Indian Tribe
The Port Gamble S'Klallam Indian Tribe
The Suquamish Indian Tribe
The Swinomish Indian Tribal Community
The Tulalip Tribes
The United States of America
The State of Washington

2. A. As used herein, the term " 1999 Annex" means the version of Annex IV to the Pacific Salmon Treaty that the parties to that Treaty adopted by exchange of diplomatic notes dated June 30, 1999.

B. As used herein, the term " Tribes" means those Tribes signing this Stipulation and Order.

II. AGREED STATEMENTS

1. Under equitable orders entered in United States v. Washington and in Washington v. Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Association, 443 U.S. 658, 99 S.Ct. 3055, 61 L.Ed.2d 823 (1979), the treaty Tribes party to United States v. Washington and the State of Washington are entitled to an opportunity to take up to 50% of the salmon available for harvest within Washington and closely adjacent marine waters, from runs that pass through tribal usual and accustomed fishing grounds. These salmon include sockeye that spawn in the Fraser River system in Canada and many chinook, coho, and chum stocks that originate in Washington waters.

2. On January 28, 1985, the United States and Canada entered into the Pacific Salmon Treaty, T.I.A.S. No. 11091. The United States Senate ratified the treaty on March 7, 1985. The Pacific Salmon Treaty addresses the conservation and international allocation of salmon stocks that originate in one country and are subject to interception in the other. Stocks subject to the Pacific Salmon Treaty include sockeye and pink from the Fraser River and many chinook, coho, and chum stocks that originate in Washington. Article IV of the Pacific Salmon Treaty contemplates that the two countries will negotiate fishing regimes, which are attached to the Treaty as annexes and implemented through regulations adopted in the member countries. Annex IV is concerned with fishing regimes adopted by the United States and Canada. Chapter 4 of Annex IV addresses Fraser River sockeye salmon.

3. Since the Pacific Salmon Treaty was executed, a number of chinook, chum, and coho stocks that originate in or migrate through Washington and that are subject to the Pacific Salmon Treaty have been listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. These include Puget Sound Chinook--threatened (64 Fed. Reg. 14308, 14319 (March 24, 1999)), Lower Columbia River Chinook--threatened ( Id. at 14321), Upper Columbia River Spring Chinook--endangered ( Id. at 14324), Upper Willamette River Chinook--threatened ( Id. at 14323), Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook--threatened (57 Fed. Reg. 14653, 14661 (April 22, 1992)), Snake River Fall Chinook--threatened ( Id. at 14661), Hood Canal Summer Run Chum--threatened (64 Fed. Reg. 14508, 14513 (March 25, 1999)), Oregon Coastal Coho--threatened (63 Fed. Reg. 42587 (Aug. 10, 1998), and Ozette Lake sockeye--threatened (64 Fed. Reg. 14528, 14533 (March 25, 1999). Puget Sound Coho and Lower Columbia River Coho salmon, which are also subject to the Pacific Salmon Treaty, are candidates for listing under the Endangered Species Act. 60 Fed. Reg. 38011, 38022, 38024 (July 25, 1995). All residents of Washington State have an interest in the conservation and recovery of these fish.

4. During the first four years of the Pacific Salmon Treaty, the United States'

Page 1326

share of the Fraser River sockeye harvest opportunity was approximately 26%, the Canadian share 74%. Canada has sought to increase the Canadian share of the harvest. Disagreement over the international sharing of Fraser River sockeye has been one obstacle to the negotiation of new Annexes to the Pacific Salmon Treaty.

5. In 1999, representatives of the United States and Canada have reached agreement on a multi-year Annex to the Pacific Salmon treaty. Chapter 4 ol the 1999 Annex addresses Fraser River salmon and is intended to remain in effect for twelve years. In the 1999 Annex, the United States has agreed to reduce its harvest of Fraser River sockeye salmon. Canada has agreed to conservation-based management regimes for harvest of salmon that originate in Washington, including salmon that have been listed or are candidates for listing under the Endangered Species Act. These arrangements are an integral part of the overall package of agreements in the 1999 Annex.

6. The State of Washington recognizes that the treaty Tribes in United States v. Washington may engage in treaty fishing only at usual and accustomed grounds and stations. Fraser River sockeye pass through the usual and accustomed grounds and stations of only some of the Tribes party to United States v. Washington. Because of that, some Tribes depend on Fraser River sockeye, while other Tribes do not. The Tribes that would suffer a reduction in sockeye opportunity are not necessarily the Tribes that might eventually benefit from increased abundance of other salmon species as contemplated in the 1999 Annex.

III. ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN BY THE PARTIES

1. Under Article VI of the Pacific Salmon Treaty, the Fraser River Panel develops regulations for the harvest of sockeye and pink salmon within the Fraser Panel Area described in Annex II of the Treaty. The Fraser Panel Area generally includes U.S. and Canadian waters within the Strait of Juan de Fuca, northern Puget Sound, and the southern Strait of Georgia. Each year, the Fraser River Panel determines a Total Allowable Catch (TAC) of sockeye salmon. The 1999 Annex defines the TAC as the remaining portion of the annual aggregate Fraser River sockeye runs after deduction of spawning escapements, the Fraser River Aboriginal Exemption, and catches in test fisheries authorized by the Fraser River Panel.

2. In 1999, the overall U.S. catch in the Fraser Panel Area shall not exceed 22.4% of the TAC, of which 50% shall be made available for harvest by the Tribes, and 50% shall be made available for harvest by the State of Washington.

3. In 2000, the Washington non-treaty fisheries shall be reduced so that the U.S. catch in the Fraser Panel Area shall not exceed 20.4% of the TAC, of which 54.9% shall be made available for harvest by the Tribes, and 45.1% shall be made available for harvest by the State of Washington.

4. In 2001, the Washington non-treaty fisheries shall be further reduced so that the U.S. catch in the Fraser Panel Area shall not exceed 18.4% of the TAC, of which 61% shall be made available for harvest by the Tribes, and 39% shall be made available for harvest by the State of Washington.

5. In 2002, the Washington non-treaty fisheries shall be further reduced so that the U.S. catch in the Fraser Panel Area shall not exceed 16.5% of the TAC, of which 67.7% shall be made available for harvest by the Tribes, and 32.3% shall be

Page 1327

made available for harvest by the State of Washington.

6. Each year from 2003 through 2010, the U.S. catch in the Fraser Panel Area shall not exceed 16.5% of the TAC, of which 67.7% shall be made available for harvest by the Tribes, and 32.3% shall be made available for harvest by the State of Washington.

7. The parties recognize that the unequal distribution of harvest reductions between treaty and non-treaty fisheries may cause hardship to the non-treaty fleet. The negotiators of the 1999 Annex have proposed that the United States Congress and the Washington State Legislature appropriate at least 30 million dollars (Congress 25-30 million and the Legislature up to 5 million) over several years to purchase and retire Washington non-treaty commercial fishery licenses so as to mitigate economic hardship to the non-treaty fleet. The parties anticipate that this buyback will be accomplished over a three-year period beginning in the fall of 1999.

8. Once any portion of the funds for the purchase and retirement of commercial fishing licenses issued by Washington has been appropriated in FY 2000 as described in Paragraph III.7, the reductions in allocations to State harvests described in Paragraphs III.3 through III.6 shall be made. This Stipulation and Order shall become null and void unless some portion of the funds described in Paragraph III.7 above is appropriated in FY 2000 and the license buyback program described above is commenced. Any party to this Stipulation may invoke this paragraph by providing evidence to all other parties of the failure of the above-referenced condition and by moving the court for an order declaring this Stipulation and Order to be null and void. Should this Stipulation become null and void, the 50-50 treaty/non-treaty sharing provisions under the equitable orders described in Paragraph II.1 above shall govern the treaty/non-treaty allocation ot the U.S. share of sockeye salmon within the Fraser Panel Area.

9. The parties to this Stipulation agree that impacts on chinook, coho, and summer chum in Fraser Panel fisheries will continue to be considered in the North of Cape Falcon process, within the U.S. Section of the Fraser River Panel, and in other appropriate fishery management forums.

IV. EXPECTED BENEFITS

It is in the greater interests of all of the citizens of the State of Washington that a new Pacific Salmon Treaty Annex be adopted in which Canada pledges to reduce its interceptions of Washington salmon stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), including those described in Paragraph II.3 above. Reduced interceptions in Canada and Alaska will increase the likelihood that endangered and threatened species will recover to the point that they no longer qualify for listing and harvestable numbers of fish will once again be available to the Tribes and the State. This will significantly reduce the overall economic impact of the listings on the Tribes and the State. The current listings will likely affect urban water supplies, agricultural lands, forestry, transportation facilities, the tourist industry, and the overall wealth of the State. The reduction of the State's share of sockeye salmon as recited in the 1999 Annex will return more threatened and endangered chinook and chum salmon and candidate coho salmon, which has major value to the State and the Tribes because it may help to reduce the duration and scope of federal ESA constraints within the State.

V. IMPLEMENTATION AND MODIFICATION

1. This Stipulation shall be effective when the following three conditions are met:

Page 1328

A. The 1999 Annex is adopted by the United States and Canada.
B. Any funds are appropriated as referred to in Paragraphs III.7 and III.8 to mitigate economic hardship to the non-treaty fleet.
C. This Stipulation is approved by the Court and entered as a Court Order, pursuant to the Court's continuing jurisdiction in United States v. Washington, 384 F.Supp. 312, 333, 347, 416-17 (W.D. Wash. 1974).

Unless the parties agree on an alternative allocation, the following principles shall govern the allocation of Fraser River sockeye salmon harvest in the Fraser Panel area between the Tribes and the State of Washington after 2010:

A. If the United States and Canada have agreed on a new Annex IV Chapter 4 to the Pacific Salmon Treaty under which the United States' share of the TAC in the Fraser Panel area remains the same as its share in 2010, the tribal/non-tribal allocation shall remain the same as the allocation agreed herein for 2010;
B. If the United States and Canada have agreed on a new Annex IV Chapter 4 of the Pacific Salmon Treaty under which the United States' share in the Fraser Panel area is between 16.5% and 22.4% of the TAC, the tribal allocation shall be 11.2% of the TAC plus one third of the amount that the United States' share exceeds 16.5% but is less than 22.4% of the TAC, and the remainder shall be allocated to the State of Washington;
C. If the United States and Canada have agreed on a new Annex IV Chapter 4 of the Pacific Salmon Treaty under which the United States' share in the Fraser Panel area is 22.4% of the TAC or greater, the tribal allocation shall be as provided in subparagraph (B), above, and the remainder of the United States' share shall be allocated to the State of Washington, provided, that at the point where the State's allocation of the FAC equals the Tribal allocation, and above this point, the State of Washington and the Tribes shall share the harvest opportunity equally;
D. If the United States and Canada have agreed on a new Annex IV Chapter 4 of the Pacific Salmon Treaty under which the United States' share is less than 16.5% of the TAC in the Fraser Panel area, the tribal/non-tribal allocation shall be as agreed between the State of Washington and the Tribes or, lacking such agreement, as determined by the federal court with jurisdiction in United States v. Washington;
E. In any year after 2010 for which the United States and Canada have not agreed on a new Annex IV Chapter 4 to the Pacific Salmon Treaty, the tribal/nontribal allocation of whatever share of the TAC in the Fraser Panel area the United States proposes to harvest during the impasse with Canada shall be as follows:
i. if the United States proposes to harvest 16.5% of the TAC in the Fraser Panel area, the tribal/non-tribal allocation shall remain the same as in 2010;
ii. If the United States proposes to harvest between 16.5% and 22.4% of the TAC in the Fraser Panel area, the tribal allocation shall be 11.2% of the TAC plus one third of the amount that the United States' proposed harvest exceeds 16.5%, but is less than 22.4% of the TAC, and the remainder of the United States' proposed harvest shall be allocated to the State of Washington;
iii. if the United States proposes to harvest 22.4% or more of the TAC in

Page 1329

the Fraser Panel area, the tribal allocation shall be as provided in subparagraph E(ii), above, and the remainder of the harvest proposed by the United States shall be allocated to the State of Washington, provided, that at the point where the State of Washington's allocation of the TAC equals the tribal allocation, and above this point, the State of Washington and the Tribes shall share the harvest opportunity equally;
iv. if the United States proposes to harvest less than 16.5% of the TAC in the Fraser Panel area, the tribal/non-tribal allocation shall be as agreed between the State of Washington and the Tribes or, lacking such agreement, as determined by the federal court with jurisdiction in United States v. Washington.

3. It is further agreed that the parties shall meet not later than March 1, 2010, and enter into good faith discussions regarding the allocation of Fraser River sockeye salmon harvest between the Tribes and the State of Washington after 2010.

4. Modification of this Stipulation is to be made only in a written document signed by the parties and approved and entered by the Court as an amendment to this Stipulation.

5. Except as expressly stated herein, this Stipulation and Order does not and shall not alter the terms of any settlement agreement or Court Order entered in United States v. Washington.

6. This Stipulation and Order does not affect the power of the United States under Section 6 of the Pacific Salmon Treaty Act, 16 U.S.C. § 3635.

7. The parties' agreement to this Stipulation is only to the extent authorized by their respective laws.

8. In the event that United States v. Washington shall be terminated, the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington shall retain such jurisdiction as is necessary to enforce the terms of this Stipulation and Order.

VI. OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS

1. This Stipulation and Order does not alter orders governing treaty/non-treaty sharing of any fish other than sockeye within the Fraser Panel Area. This Stipulation and Order applies only to fisheries within the Fraser Panel Area.

2. The question of whether Fraser River sockeye caught in Alaska should be included in the allocation between treaty and non-treaty fishers in Washington at issue in United States v. Washington Subproceeding 90-1 will not be pursued for the period of time that the Fraser River sockeye chapter of the 1999 Annex is in effect, nor for any subsequent years for which the allocation between treaty and non-treaty fishers in Washington is determined under Paragraph V.2A, B, C, E(i), (ii) and (iii) above, or as agreed under Paragraph V.2D or E(iv). The parties agree that if the consolidated United States v. Washington Subproceedings 83-6 and 90-1 are reinstated on the calendar of the trial court, or the question of accounting for harvests in Alaska is raised by another party in some other proceeding, any catches of Fraser River sockeye in Alaska that occur during the time the Fraser River sockeye chapter or the 1999 Annex is in effect or during the time the allocation between treaty and non-treaty fishers in Washington is determined under said Paragraph V.2A, B, C, E(i), (ii) and (iii), or as agreed under Paragraph V.2D or E(iv), will not accrue against any state or tribal party.

Page 1330

3. This Stipulation and Order contains all the terms and conditions agreed upon by the parties. No other understandings, oral or otherwise, regarding the subject matter of this Stipulation and Order shall be deemed to exist or to bind any of the parties hereto.

Phillip E. Katzen Attorney for Jamestown, Lower Elwha, and Port Gamble S'Kllalam Tribes, and the Nooksack Indian Tribe

Per Tel. Auth.

John ArumAttorney for the Makah Indian Tribe

Per Tel. Auth.

Alix Foster Attorney for Swinomish Indian Tribal Community

Per Tel. Auth.

Robert K. Costello Attorney for the State of Washington

Also approved for entry:

Michael A.D. Stanley Attorney for the States of Alaska Party to Consolidated Subproceedings Nos. 83-6 and 90-1

Daniel A. Raas Attorney for the Lummi Nation

Per Tel. Auth.

Michelle Hansen, Attorney for the Suquamish Indian Tribe

Per Tel. Auth.

Mason D. Morisset, Attorney for Tulalip Tribes

Per Tel. Auth.

Peter Monson, Attorney for the United States

Per Tel. Auth.

ORDER

The parties having assented to the foregoing Stipulation as evidenced by the signatures of their respective Counsel, it is hereby

ORDERED, THAT THIS STIPULATION IS HEREBY ADOPTED AS AN ORDER OF THIS COURT.


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